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2020, (12): 1-2.
2020, 35(12): 1-10.
Crop Science
Breeding of a New Three-line Hybrid Rice Variety M76 You 212
CHEN Chunxia, WANG Hongfei, YOU Qingru, ZHOU Peng, TU Shihang, ZHENG Feiyan, DONG Ruixia, ZHENG Jiatuan, HUANG Tingxu
2020, 35(12): 1289-1295. doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.12.001
  Objective  Breeding a new resistant hybrid rice variety by testing cross of resistant sterile line and high quality restorer line.   Method  F1 hybrid seeds of Yuejingsimiao 2 and blast-resistant intermediate material U03 were treated by 350Gy60Co-γirradiation, a mutant character as small grains, dwarf and erect panicle was found in M2. After the Pedigree selection and identification of rice blast resistance, the plant with field number 12HR6-12 was selected to hybrid with sterile line M76A. In 2013-2014, multipoint variety comparative tests were carried out in Jianyang, Fujian Province and Sanya, Hainan Province, and the new restorer line was named Fuhui 212. In 2015, M76 you 212 performed very well with a high yield and rice blast-resistant at the mid-season rice regional trials in Fujian.It is entering continuing tries and produce trial at 2016 and 2017 respectively.  Result  The mean yield of M76 You 212 is 8763.60 kg•hm-2 at the regional trials in Fujian in two consecutive years, which was 8.61% higher than that of the check variety, Ⅱ Youming 86. Over all, M76 You 212 showed high and stable yield, moderate resistance to rice blast and good grain quality at regional trials, it was certified by the Crop Variety Approval Committee of Fujian in 2018.  Conclusion  M76 You 212, the new three-line hybrid rice variety, is characterized by high yield, good grain quality and blast resistance and suitable for middle-season rice cultivation in Fujian Province.
Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Growth and Yield of Spring Foxtail Millet
CHANG Le, WANG Lixia, GUO Erhu, ZHANG Aiying
2020, 35(12): 1296-1303. doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.12.002
  Objective  Various plant growth regulators (PGRs) capable of reducing plant height and improve lodging resistance without affecting crop yield were tested on the spring foxtail millet. Optimal spraying time of the selected agents were determined based on the effects on growth, development, and yield of the plants after the treatments.   Method  On the spring foxtail millet, Changsheng 07, at the seedling or jointing stage, 5 PGRs for the treatment, as well as water as control, were sprayed separately. At booting and maturity stages, chlorophyll, photosynthetic rate, dry matters accumulation, major agronomic traits, and yield of the plants were measured for comparison.   Result  Among PGRs applied, chlormequat, paclobutrazol, and mepiquat chloride were found to dwarf the plants in varying degrees. The treatments increased the stem diameter, altered the secondary root number and weight, improved the lodging resistance, and increased the chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate of the plants over control. Even the crop yield rose under the treatments as the plant tissues continued to propagate and accumulate at the booting stage. Spraying of the PGRs at seedling stage produced greater effects than at jointing stage, and the chlormequat application was more effective than the other PGRs. Compared to control, the treated plants were significantly shorter on height (decreased by 8.16%), larger in stem diameter (increased by 6.67%), more secondary roots with count increased (rose by 18.18%), greater net photosynthetic efficiency (higher by 16.07%) (P<0.05), and higher yield with 5.58% increase in 2016 and 5.67% in 2017. Less effective than chlormequat, paclobutrazol sprayed at seedling stage caused a plant height reduction of 4.19%, a stem girth enlargement of 5.00%, and a root weight increase of 34.3%, while at the jointing stages, those of 2.24%, 3.21%, and 30.4%, respectively, in comparison to those of control. Among the three agents, mepiquat chloride was least effective in dwarfing the plant. After spraying at the seedling and jointing stages, the plant height decreased merely by 2.31% and 0.79%, respectively, while the stem thickness increased by 4.1% and 1.67%, respectively, over control. The application of ethephon at jointing stage also significantly dwarfed the plant with a 5.38% increase on stem thickness, 21.21% increase on secondary root count, 39.6% increase on root weight, 8.54% increases on dry matters and aboveground plant weights, but significant decreases on chlorophyll content and net photosynthetic rate, over control.   Conclusion  The plant height and stem girth of the existing mid-and-late-maturing spring foxtail millet cultivars could be altered by spraying chlormequat or paclobutrazol at seedling stage or ethephon at jointing stage to facilitate mechanical cultivation, increase lodging resistance, and improve yield of the hay stock.
Effect of Magnesium on Endogenous Hormones, Medicinal Material Yield, and l-Borneol Accumulation of Growing Blumea balsamifera Plants
WANG Dan, LAN Huiping, ZHANG Yingbo, HU Xuan, CHEN Xiaolu, CHEN Zhenxia, PANG Yuxin, YU Fulai
2020, 35(12): 1304-1311. doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.12.003
  Objective  Effects of magnesium (Mg) application on the endogenous hormones, medicinal material yield, and active componentl-borneol accumulation of Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC. during growth periods were studied.   Method  One-year-old seedlings of B. balsamifera were treated with MgSO4·7H2O to provide the plants with Mg at levels of 0.0, 1.5, 15.0 or 150.0 mg·mL−1. Spanning across the growth periods of the plants, contents of gibberellic acid (GA3), auxin (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), and zeatin (ZR) in leaf were determined by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay; yield of medicinal material on an electronic scale; and, contents of l-borneol by GC. The combined total l-borneol in life cycle was calculated as the per plant yield of the active component.   Result  On the 30th, 60th, and 90th day after the treatments, the 4 endogenous hormones and medicinal material yield of the treated plants significantly increased. The greatest effects were observed at the application levels of 1.5 or 15.0 mg·mL−1. Sampled on the 60th and 90th day, the l-borneol contents in leaf significantly differed by the varied treatments the plants received (P<0.01). The lowest content showed up in the leaves tested on the 60th day after the 0.0 mg·mL−1 control treatment, while 1.5 mg·mL−1 had 34.37%, 15.0 mg·mL−1 applications rendered 35.48%, and 150.0 mg·mL−1 resulted in 25.00% on l-borneol. At the end of 90d, the l-borneol in leaf under 1.5 mg·mL−1 treatment was significantly higher than those under other treatments, but no statistically significant differences found among the treatments on the 30th or the 120th day (P>0.05). All Mg applications significantly increased the per plant yields on l-borneol (P<0.05).   Conclusion  The Mg applications significantly boosted the endogenous hormones, medicinal material yield, and l-borneol production of the individual B. balsamifera plant in 30 d. On the 60th, 90th, and 120th day, the applications at the rates of 1.5 and 15.0 mg·mL−1 seemed more apparent in promoting the yield of the medicinal material and the content of l-borneol than either control or the highest dosage.
Horticultural Science
Effects of Foliar Spraying of Potassium and Sodium on Quality and Shelf Life of Kiwifruits
LI Wenzhi, LONG Youhua, MO Feixu, HE Linan, SHI Jinqiao, RAN Fei
2020, 35(12): 1312-1320. doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.12.004
  Objective  Effects of foliar spraying potassium and sodium solution on quality and shelf life of Kiwifruits were studied.   Method  Eight-year-old Actinidia deliciosa 'Guichang' plants under the conventional cultivation and management were sprayed separately with 9 different concentrations and combinations of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (PDP) and sodium chloride (SC) solutions. Quality of the kiwifruits at harvest and changes during storage in laboratory were evaluated.   Result  The quality of kiwifruits under treatments improved at first as the PDP and/or SC concentration increased but declined when higher concentrations were applied after a peak on quality enhancement was reached. And, the quality improvement was greater when both PDP and SC were applied in combination. Among the treatments, the 0.2% PDP/0.1% SC combination yielded the most significant enhancement on fruit quality with the highest glycolate-to-acid ratio of 14.54, vitamin C content of 128.13 mg·hg−1, fruit shape index of 1.65, and individual fruit weight of 76.07 g. The presence of 0.2% PDP significantly reduced the occurrence of soft and rotten fruits during storage prolonging the shelf life of the kiwifruits.  Conclusion  Spraying the kiwifruit plants with a water solution of 0.2% PDP and 0.1% SC improved the quality, delayed the nutrient decline, postponed the soluble sugar peak, and extended the shelf life of the fruits.
Effects of Salicylic Acid on Growth and Physiology of Non-heading Chinese Cabbage Seedlings under Cadmium Stress
CHEN Hua, CHEN Yongkuai, WANG Tao, HUANG Yuyan, LIAO Shuilan, LAN Jie, KANG Yuxin
2020, 35(12): 1321-1329. doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.12.005
  Objective  Growth and physiological responses of non-heading Chinese cabbage to salicylic acid (SA) spraying under Cd-stress were studied.  Method  Huaguan non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) seedlings under an imposed stress of 50 mg CdCl·2.5H2O·L−1 were sprayed with SA at a rate of 0.01-0.5 mmol·L−1. Growth, root activity, osmotic regulators, photosynthetic pigment content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and antioxidant enzyme activity as well as the Cd absorption, accumulation, and transportation of the separately treated seedlings were determined.   Result  The seedlings under the Cd-stress control (CK2) grew significantly slower with reduced root vitality, contents of photosynthetic pigments, protein, and proline (Pro), and antioxidant enzyme activities but increased MDA in comparison to the blank control (CK1). Under the Cd-stress, SA spraying in the range of 0.01-0.05 mmol·L−1 rejuvenated the seedling growth, with the greatest effect observed when 0.05 mmol·L−1 SA was applied. The seedlings of CK1 had their root/shoot ratio increased by 140%, proline content by 44.98%, POD by 118.18%, and CAT by 70.43% over those of CK2 10d under the Cd-stress, while the aboveground parts of the plants had the Cd content and transport coefficient significantly reduced. On the other hand, when higher SA concentrations in the range of 0.1-0.5 mmol·L−1 was applied, the seedling growth was significantly inhibited.  Conclusion  At a concentration of 0.05 mmol SA·L−1, the spraying could effectively alleviate the Cd toxicity and improve the Cd tolerance of the non-heading Chinese cabbage seedlings.
Plant Protection
Yeast Two-hybrid cDNA Library Constructed from Vitis davidii Fex Pericarps Infected by Grape Ripe Rot Pathogen, Colletotrichum viniferum
LEI Yan, XIE Qian, CHEN Ting, LIU Xinming, CHEN Qingxi
2020, 35(12): 1330-1335. doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.12.006
  Objective  A yeast two-hybrid cDNA library on Colletotrichum viniferum-infected pericarps of the wild spine grape (Vitis davidii Föex), a cultivar highly resistant to the serious grape ripe rot in southern China, was constructed to facilitate studies on the molecular mechanism of the disease resistance in the plants.   Method  The total RNA was extracted from the pericarps of V. davidii accession, Fu'an, 1, 3, and 7d after C. viniferum inoculation and reverse-transcribed into cDNA using the SMART method. The cDNA was purified by an assay kit into a double stranded cDNA to be digested. Then, the short fragments were removed to obtain a high-quality cDNA for the subsequent cloning into a pGADT7 3-frame plasmid vector and purifying for the establishment of a primary cDNA library. After amplification, the plasmid was extracted and transformed into Yeast Y187 to produce the amplified library for final identification.  Result  The primary cDNA library had a capacity of approximately 5.2×106 cfu with a recombination rate of approximately 97.92% and the inserted fragments of good polymorphism in the lengths ranging from 400 to 2 000 bp. The harvested Y187 yeast library titer was about 6.0×107 cfu·mL−1.   Conclusion  The constructed cDNA library from C. viniferum-infected grape pericarps was adequate for yeast two-hybrid screening. It would materially aid the studies on the interacting proteins in grape plants infected by the pathogen.
Screening, Identification, and Preliminary Analysis on Antagonistic Bacillus sp. against Potato Dry Rot
JIA Pengli, SHEN shuo, HU yingjie
2020, 35(12): 1336-1345. doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.12.007
  Objective  Bacillus sp. isolated from Hordeum vulgare L. distiller’s grain were explored as a potential biocontrol agent against the potato dry rot disease.   Method  The plate confrontation method was applied to examine the antagonistic activities of 9 Bacillus strains isolated from the barley wine distiller’s grain against 4 potato dry rot pathogens. Active strains were then identified by morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular biology methods. The plate transparent ring and discharge of oil ring tests were used to determine the capacity of the selected strains in secreting bacteriostatic proteins and lipopeptides. Using the potato dry rot pathogens as indicator in the Oxford cup test, the antibacterial activity and the stability under different conditions of the extracts of the fermentation broths of the active strains were determined.  Result  (1) The Bacillus sp., JZ3-4-7 and JZ3-1-15 displayed significant inhibitory activities against the potato dry rot pathogens in the screening. JZ3-1-15 also exhibited a desirable stability. (2) JZ3-1-15 was subsequently identified as B. velezensis. (3) The JZ3-1-15 fermentation broth contained protease, amylase, cellulase, as well as lipopeptides. (4) The n-butanol extract of JZ3-1-15 fermentation broth had a significant inhibitory rate of 80.07% against the pathogen, Qing 9D-2-6. (5) The same extract withstood a temperature as high as 121 ℃ maintaining a strong thermal stability. It was also stable under acidic and alkaline conditions with a peak anti-pathogenicity at pH 8, and its activity not affected by ultraviolet.   Conclusion  JZ3-1-15 and the n-butanol extract of its fermentation broth showed significant inhibitory activity on the potato dry rot pathogens. It appeared that they could be developed as a new biocontrol agent against the target pathogens and/or a preservative for fresh potatoes. The effective compounds or precursors might also be isolated from them for combating the potato dry rot disease and further studies.
Resources and Environmental Science
Responses of Barringtonia racemosa to Tidal Flooding
LIANG Fang, PAN Yanju, DENG Xu, WU Yushuang, LIANG Zerui, ZHAO Shihua, TAN Xiaohui
2020, 35(12): 1346-1356. doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.12.008
  Objective   Responses of the endangered semi-mangrove Barringtonia racemosa to submergence in tides were studied to determine the adequacy of their planting for urban inland river, lakeside, and wetland restorations or other similar landscape projects.   Method   Two-year-old B. racemosa seedlings were used in the simulated semi-diurnal tide experiment. Morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and mineral contents of the plants in response to tidal submergence for varied durations were monitored.   Result   (1) The seedlings survived 250 d under the flooding treatments, but the plant height, leaf count, and leaf area were significantly lower, while the numbers of aerial roots, piercing plants, and lenticels significantly higher, than those of control. (2) The chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll in the leaves decreased continuously under flooding, except the 16 h·d−1 submergence treatment; MDA increased, except the 14 h·d−1 treatment; and, MDA, proline, and soluble sugars became significantly higher than those of CK and peaked under the 10 h·d−1 treatment. (3) The flooding increased the absorption of N, P, and Fe but inhibited that of K and Cu in the leaves.   Conclusion   The area, the contents of P, total chlorophyll, and soluble protein, and the activities of CAT and POD of leaves as well as the surface area of lateral roots were the major indicators that reflected the responses of B. racemosa to the flooding stress. The plants showed strong tolerance and adaptability to the adversity brought about by the semi-diurnal tides that lasted 20 h·d−1. Thus, B. racemosa could be adequately planted for landscaping at waterfront, lakeshore green belt, and/or freshwater wetland.
Microbial Diversity in Rhizosphere and Non-rhizosphere Soils of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis Plants
ZHENG Meixia, CHEN Hong, ZHU Yujing, SU Hailan
2020, 35(12): 1357-1367. doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.12.009
  Objective   The microbial communities in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils growing Paris polyphylla var. chinensis plants were analyzed and compared in the field as well as in laboratory.   Method   The high throughput sequencing Illumina Miseq 2×300 bp was applied to sequence total DNA of the microbes in the soils. The LDA Effect Size analysis was used to examine the differences on selected microbial groups between the communities in the field and laboratory.   Result   The microbial diversity in the soils of P. polyphylla was rich with 21 phyla, 33 classes, 52 orders, 89 families, and 160 genera identified. The Chao, Ace, Shannon, and Simpson indices on the soil samples indicated that the non-rhizosphere soil was more abundant and diverse than the rhizosphere soil. However, there were no significant differences between them on the phylum or family level. Among the differentially abundant groups, Chlorobia on the class level, Chlorobiales and Myxococcales on the order level, and Acinetobacter and Rudaea on the genus level were significantly lower in the rhizosphere.   Conclusion  This study not only shows that Paris polyphylla var. chinensis non-rhizosphere soil bacterial communities have higher abundance and diversity, but also lays the foundation for further exploration of the soil microbial environment of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis.
Ammonia-oxidizing Bacteria Community in Rhizosphere Soils of Minjiang Estuary Wetlands
CHEN Lihua, LYU Xin, LIU Lanying, HUANG Wei, LI Yueren
2020, 35(12): 1368-1375. doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.12.010
  Objective  Community and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in rhizosphere soils of reeds, smooth cordgrasses, and mangroves on the wetlands at Minjiang estuaries were studied.   Method  Twenty-four rhizosphere soil specimens in different layers on the wetlands were collected in 4 seasons with the multi-point mixed sampling method. Sequence of amoA gene in the specimens was determined by the high-throughput sequencing technology for a bioinformatic analysis on the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria community at the sites.   Result  A total of 300 527 final tags and 2 794 OTUs were detected in the collected specimens. The OTU-based diversity analysis showed little difference on the Chao index among the reed, smooth cordgrass, and mangrove rhizosphere soils. The Shannon index of the mangrove soil was higher than that of the reed soil, while that of the smooth cordgrass soil being the lowest. The Chao and Shannon indices of the reed and mangrove soils were lowest in spring. There was no apparent pattern on the Chao or Shannon index of the soils in different depths. The taxonomy of many of the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria could not be clearly classified. The dominant phylum of the microbes identified in the soils was Proteobacteria, and Nitrosomonas, Thiobacillus, and Caldimonas being the predominant genera.   Conclusion  Nitrosomonas presented in most of the rhizosphere soils at the Minjiang estuary wetlands, but Thiobacillus and Caldimonas were dominant in individual soil specimens.
Effects of Rain-shelter cultivation on the rhizosphere bacterial communities of pear trees
CHEN Xiaoming, ZENG Shaomin, HUANG Xinzhong
2020, 35(12): 1376-1384. doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.12.011
  Objective  To provide a theoretical basis for improving soil management measures of rain shelter treatment, the effects of rain shelter treatment on the bacterial community of pear tree rhizosphere soil were studied.  Method  The fruit qualities, and soil chemical properties and taxonomic composition of bacteria communities were determined under rain-shelter treatment and open field treatment in the same pear orchard. The correlation between bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of pear trees and the physio-chemical and fruit quality indicators under different treatments were analyzed.  Result   The results of pear fruit quality showed that the content of sucrose and reducing sugar under rain-shelter treatment were increased by 1.83 times and 1.08 times, respectively, as much that under open field treatment. The content of vitamin C and total acid under rain-shelter treatment were significantly decreased by 1.23 times and 1.20 times, respectively, as much that under open field treatment. Compared with open field treatment, the ratio of sugar to acid in rain-sheltered treatment increased significantly and fruit quality was better. The results of soil chemical properties of pear orchard showed that the contents of available phosphorus, available potassium, organic matter and water content in the rain shelter treatment were significantly lower than those in the open field treatment, while the total nitrogen was significantly higher than that in the open field treatment. Sequencing analysis of rhizosphere soil microorganisms showed that the main bacterial communities in the rhizosphere soil of pear trees under rain shelter treatment were Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi and Actinobacteria at the phylum level. Uncultured bacterium, uncultured forest soil bacterium and uncultured proteobacterium were the main bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of pear trees in the open field. Rain-shelter treatment significantly increased rhizosphere microbial diversity and richness. Correlation analysis showed that the rhizosphere microbial diversity was positively correlated with total nitrogen, available nitrogen and pH value, but was negatively correlated with total potassium, total phosphorus, available potassium, available phosphorus, organic matter and water content, and was positively correlated with sucrose and reducing sugar content.   Conclusion  Rain-shelter cultivation can promote the diversity and richness of microorganisms, enhance the stability of the rhizosphere micro-ecological environment. Rain-shelter treatment is conducive to the growth of pear trees and the formation of fruit yield and quality, but it was disadvantageous to soil material circulation. Proper open shelter cultivation could make use of soil material circulation in pear orchard and improve the sustainability of pear orchard production.
Food Science
Beany Note Reduction and Overall Quality Improvement on Soymilk by Optimized Processing
GUO Xiaofei, GUO Qiqi, HE Zhigang, LIANG Zhangcheng, LIN Xiaozi
2020, 35(12): 1385-1390. doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.12.012
  Objective  Study the effects of coordinated control of rehydration parameters and oxygen-isolating refining on lipoxygenase activity and soybean milk flavor, and provide theoretical and technical support for the development of high-quality soybean drinks.  Method  The inhibition effects of factors such as rehydration conditions, refining temperature and oxygen-isolating refining on soybean milk lipoxygenase activity were compared, and the better process parameters were obtained. Based on the process parameters, the effect of coordinated control of oxygen-isolating refining on the removal of beany flavor and the color and flavor of soy milk was studied.  Result  (1) Rehydration temperature is the main factor affecting the activity of lipoxygenase in soybean, the hot alkali (80 ℃, pH 9) rehydration and oxygen-isolating refining treatment process has the best effect on the inhibition of lipoxygenase activity. The activity of lipoxygenase is only 100±2.5 U·mL−1; (2) Under the optimal rehydration conditions obtained in (1), the effect of different oxygen-isolating refining temperatures on soybean lipoxygenase activity is not significant. Therefore, refining temperature is not the key factor to inhibit the activity of lipoxygenase; (3) Compared with oxygen refining at room temperature, the lipoxygenase activity of soymilk prepared by oxygen-isolating refining is reduced by 99.67%, the total flavonoid content is increased by 24.77%, the beany smell is obviously removed, and the comprehensive quality of soy milk, such as brightness and flavor, was also significantly improved. So the optimal processing parameters combined with oxygen-isolating refining has the best effect in removing the beany flavor and improving the comprehensive quality of soy milk.  Conclusion  The results showed that under the cooperation of oxygen-isolating refining process, the lowest beany flavor and the best comprehensive quality were obtained by the process of rehydration with 80 ℃ soaking temperature, pH 9 and 60 min soaking time. This research is of great significance to the development of high-quality soybean beverages.
Anti-peroxidation of Total Flavonoids from Fruits of Ligustrum obtusifolium on Lipids
SHI Xiaojing, CAI Jin, JIN Hui, LI Dan, ZHANG Yueyue, GUO Jun, WU Ting
2020, 35(12): 1391-1396. doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.12.013
  Objective  Anti-peroxidation effect of the flavonoids extracted from fruits of Ligustrum obtusifolium on lipids was investigated.   Method  Scavenging capacities of the crude extract on DPPH· and hydroxyl (·OH) free radicals were tested using spectrophotometry. Effects of the flavonoids on the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in rat liver homogenate upon spontaneous oxidation or peroxidation by either FeSO4 or H2O2 induction and the mitochondrial swelling on rat liver induced by Fe2+ and ascorbic acid (Vc) as well as the hemolysis of red blood cells (RBCs) induced by H2O2 were assessed in vitro. And the activity of the catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and the level of the glutathione (GSH) were tested in vivo.  Result  The flavonoid extract exhibited abilities in scavenging DPPH· and ·OH free radicals with IC50 of (0.45±0.01) g·L−1 and (1.57±0.12) g·L−1, respectively. From the concentration of 1.0 g·L−1 to 6.0 g·L−1, the extract significantly reduced the in vitro MDA in rat liver homogenate under spontaneous oxidation; from 0.5 g·L−1 to 6.0 g·L−1, under FeSO4 induction; and, from 2.0 g·L−1 to 6.0 g·L−1 under H2O2 induction. From 0.5 g·L−1 to 10.0 g·L−1, the flavonoids also suppressed the liver mitochondrial swelling induced by Fe2+ and Vc; while, from 2.0 g·L−1 to 10.0 g·L−1, the RBC hemolysis induced by H2O2, and those from 0.6 g·L−1 to 4.0 g·L−1 could enhance the level of CAT, GSH, and GSH-Px.   Conclusion  The crude flavonoid extract from the fruits of L. obtusifolium significantly inhibited in vitro on both spontaneous and induced lipid peroxidation reducing the oxidative damage on the mitochondria and RBCs of rat liver, and enhance the acitivity of antioxidant enzymes and the content of non-enzyme antioxidants. The results suggested a promising potential in developing a natural antioxidant from the fruits.
Volatiles, Flavonoids, and Antibacterial Activity of Ethanol-extract from Geranium wilfordii
LI Yu, LIU Haihua, LIU Cuijun, YOU Jinwen, ZHAO Renjun, SHI Aihua, HE Meijun
2020, 35(12): 1397-1404. doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.12.014
  Objective  Antibacterial activity and mechanism of the ethanol-extract of Geranium wilfordii Maxim on clinical pathogens were studied for development of a natural antibiotic.   Method  The chemical compositions of the extract were analyzed by GC-MS and HPC. The filter paper method was used to test the antimicrobial activity of the extract against 12 clinical samples of the resistant bacteria.   Result  GC-MS detected 18 volatile substances, including aliphatic hydrocarbons, fatty acids, and alkaloids (1.15%). The 3 flavonoid compounds identified were myricitrin, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucose, and taxifolin. High antibacterial activities against Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 (MIC 1.0 mg·mL−1), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 1.0 mg·mL−1), Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (MIC 1.0 mg·mL−1), and Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 29212 (MIC 2.0 mg·mL−1) of the extract were observed.   Conclusion  In the G. wilfordii ethanol-extract, aliphatic hydrocarbons, fatty acids, and alkaloids were the major volatiles, and myricitrin, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucose, and taxifolin the 3 substantial flavonoid compounds found. The extract demonstrated a significant antibacterial activity with wide spectrum against the commonly known clinical pathogens.