With different anthocyanins content in the seed coat, the brown rice present different colors such as black, purple, red, green, yellow and other colors, which was called colored rice. Colored rice has more abundant nutrition and health value than common rice (white rice). Colored rice contains various beneficial substances which human needs, such as amino acids, functional lipids, dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, anthocyanins, phenolic compounds, γ-oryzanol, and so on. It has important nutritional and medicinal value, which enjoys high popularity among consumers and well market’s attention. It has great market potential. The germplasm resource distribution, evaluation and utilization, functional components and their characteristics, genetics research and breeding application of the colored rice were reviewed in this paper. The problems restricting the development of colored rice industry were analyzed in this paper, at present, colored rice is lagging behind the common white rice varieties, new functional foods and medicines of colored rice are yet to be developed. In order to promote the innovative development of China's colored rice industry, it is necessary for the market and industrial development to carry out comprehensive research on colored rice systematically and effectively, the breeding efficiency of colored rice varieties can be greatly improved by strengthening the assistant breeding with biological means .
Adverse external conditions commonly affect plant growth and development which directly or indirectly cause decline on crop yield and even death of the plants. The homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) transcription factors have been known to involve in stress responses of plants. Belonging to the homeobox (HB) protein family, the factors are unique to plants and tightly connected by the highly conserved HD and ZIP. The formation of protein dimers mediated by the LZ domain allows HD to bind to the target DNA and regulate the expression of the target gene. The HD-ZIP transcription factors not only play an important role in regulating plant growth and development but also in responding to external stresses. This article focuses on the published reports of recent studies concerning the roles of the 4 subfamilies Ⅰ-Ⅳ of the HD-ZIP transcription factors in response to pathogenic attacks and/or abiotic stresses such as drought, salt, extreme temperature, wounding, low R/FR light, and heavy metals. Through the internal molecular response mechanisms initiated by HD-ZIP, a plant could ward off the imposed adversities. With an in-depth understanding of the functions, means to improve the growth and stress resistance of plants could be realized.