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Purification Optimization by Zinc Chelation and in Vitro Antioxidant Activity Assessment on Polyphenols from Ulva Lactuca
CHEN Yu-qing, LV Feng, WANG Jing-ming
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](0) [PDF 0KB](0)
Abstract:
  Objective  The polyphenols in ethanol extract from Ulva lactuca were purified by zinc chelation, and the antioxidant activity of the materials obtained before and after optimization was evaluated.  Methods  The polyphenol-Zn2+ chelation rate from U.lactuca as index, the effects of six factors, such as the category of zinc salt, ZnCl2 mass concentration, ethanol volume fraction, reaction time, the pH values, ethanol extract mass concentration from U.lactuca, on polyphenol-Zn2+ chelation were studied by single factor experiment. On the basis of single factor test, the process parameters were optimized by response surface method. The polyphenol-Zn2+ dissociation rate as index, EDTA mass concentration was explored. The scavenging capacities of ABTS+·, DPPH·, ·OH before and after optimization were compared and analyzed.  Results  Then, using 83% ethanol as solven, ethanol extract mass concentration from U.lactuca was 6.8 mg·mL−1, ZnCl2 mass concentration was 15.0 mg·mL−1, the pH was 8.0, and the chelation reaction was 30 min, EDTA mass concentration was 20 mg·mL−1.Under this condition, the content of polyphenols increased from 6.95% to 25.18% with 3.62 times. In vitro antioxidant activity evaluation showed that the ethanol extract and its purification from U.lactuca had antioxidant activity, the scavenging capacity of the three radicals was all ·OH>DPPH·>ABTS+·. the scavenging capacity of ABTS+·,DPPH·and ·OH of the purifications was higher than the ethanol extractions with 5.12、8.35 and 11.70 times, and when the mass concentration reached 16,12,8 mg·mL−1,there was no significant difference with VC.  Conclusion  The optimized zinc chelating method significantly increased the content of polyphenols and antioxidant activity on ethanol crude extracts from U.lactuca and could be provided reference for the further development and application of seaweed polyphenols.
Polymorphism analysis of the first base of Wx gene intron 1 for parents of hybrid rice
LIAN Ling, PAN Li-yan, ZHU Yong-sheng, XU Hui-bing, ZHENG Yan-mei, HE Wei, , WANG Ying-heng, CAI Qiu-hua, XIE Hua-an, ZHANG Jian-fu
[Abstract](59) [FullText HTML](28) [PDF 1101KB](0)
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  Objective  Amylose content is an important factor affecting grain quality, and Wx gene encoding granule-bound starch synthetase is the major gene influencing on amylose content. The studies showed that the first base of Wx gene intron 1 can affect splicing efficiency of intron, then affects expression of Wx. Polymorphism analysis of the first base of Wx gene intron 1 in 120 parents will provide theoretical basis for breeding.  Method  PCR amplification of Wx fragment from genomic DNA of 120 parents, and restriction enzyme analysis of PCR products were performed by digestion with Acc I. Then polymorphism of the first base of Wx gene intron 1 was analyzed according to agarose gel electrophoresis. In addition, amylose content, gel consistency and alkali spreading value of 19 parents were determined.  Result  The result of PCR showed that the target fragment could be amplified from all the parents, According to Acc I enzyme analysis, the first base of Wx gene intron 1 of 81 parents were T and 38 parents were G, accounting for 67.5%, 31.67% respectively. And only one parent was heterozygous genotype, accounting for 0.83%. The amylose content of 7 G-type parents were higher than that of 12 T-type parents, and the average amylose content of 6 G-type parents were more than 20%. The gel consistency and the alkali spreading value of G-type and T-type parents showed no significant difference.  Conclusion  Bases polymorphism of the first base of Wx gene intron 1 in 120 parents were analyzed in this study. Compared to that of T- type parents, the amylose content of G-type parents was higher, but the gel consistency and the alkali spreading value did not have obvious difference.
Identification for Anthracnose Pathogen of Passion Fruit and Fungicides Screening
RAN Fei, LONG You-hua, SHI Jin-qiao, YIN Xian-hui, WU Xiao-mao, FAN Rong
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](111) [FullText HTML](71) [PDF 831KB](5)
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  Objective  In order to clarify the pathogen of passion fruit anthracnose in Zhenfeng County, Guizhou Province, and to screen out effective fungicides for controlling passion fruit anthracnose.  Method  The diseased fruit was isolated and purified by the method of tissue isolation, verified by the rule of Koch, and identified by morphological observation and multi-gene(ITS, GAPDH, ACT, CHS−1) phylogeny analysis. At the same time, the inhibitory effect of six fungicides on the mycelial growth of pathogen was investigated by the method of mycelial growth rate.  Result  The results showed that the pathogen causing of passion fruit anthracnose was C. fructicola. Indoor toxicity test showed that 6 fungicides had certain inhibitory effects on the mycelial growth of the pathogen, among which Difenoconazole 10% WG had the best inhibitory effect, EC50 was 0.557 9 mg·L−1, followed by Trifloxystrobin·Tebuconazole 75% WG, Procyclidine·Azoxystrobin 18.7% SE and Fluopyram.Tebuconazole 35% SC, with EC50 of 1.035 4 mg·L−1, 2.772 6 mg·L−1 and 2.841 5 mg·L−1, respectively.  Conclusion  The pathogen of passion fruit anthracnose in Zhenfeng County was identified as C. fructicola. Difenoconazole 10% WG, Trifloxystrobin·Tebuconazole 75% WG, Procyclidine·Azoxystrobin 18.7% SE and Fluopyram.Tebuconazole 35% SC had good inhibitory effects on this fungus, which can be used as chemical fungicides for the control of passion fruit anthracnose.
Microbial Number of Different Planting-years Tea Soils and Correlation Analysis with Fertility
CHEN Li-hua, LIU Lan-ying, LV Xin, LI Yue-ren
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](0) [PDF 0KB](0)
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  Objective  Soil microbial community and nutrient are important factors influencing the growth and quality of tea. The correlation between microbial number and fertility of different planting-years tea soils was studied, that will provide a basis for soil improvement and stable production of tea gardens.  Method  The laboratory-cultured microorganisms of different planting-years tea soils in Wuyishan city were determined by the standard dilution-plating technique, and the correlational analyses of soil microbial number and its fertility were conducted.  Result  The laboratory-cultured microorganisms decreased with the deepening of soil layer. The highest number of laboratory-cultured bacteria appeared in the rhizosphere soil of 10-years-old tea plant, and the number of laboratory-cultured fungus in the different planting-years tea soils showed different trends in different soil layers. Acidification of rhizosphere soil of tea plants was quite serious with the pH value from 3.14 to 3.36. The changes of fertility indexes were different with the increase of planting years. The content of total P and total K in 0-15 cm soil layer decreased with the increase of planting years, while the content of total N and available N in 15-30 cm soil layer increased with the increase of planting years, and some other fertility indexes showed the highest or lowest value in 5-years-old tea soils or 10-years-old tea soils. Redundancy analysis revealed that the number of laboratory-cultured bacteria was mainly affected by the content of available K and total P, and the number of laboratory-cultured fungus was mainly affected by the content of total N and available N.  Conclusion  There was a correlation between microbial number and some fertility indexes (such as available K, available P, total N and available N) in the different planting-years tea soils.
ISSR analysis of genetic diversity and genetic relationship of Anthurium
HU Shuai-ya, LI Bin-qi, CHEN Xiao-chou, WU Wei-feng, ZHANG yi-Zhi, CHEN Chun, CHEN Fa-xing
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](0) [PDF 0KB](0)
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  Objective  Genetic diversity and genetic relationship of 56 species of Anthurium andraeanum were analyzed by ISSR molecular marker technology, which provided reference for the new varieties breeding, variety improvement and germplasm management of new varieties of Anthurium.  Method  Using the collected 56 anthurium varieties as experimental materials, 10 polymorphic primers were screened from 100 UBC primers, and 10 universal primers were used to construct the anthurium ISSR molecular marker technology system. UPGMA cluster analysis was performed and its Nei's gene diversity index and Shannon's information index were calculated.  Result  Ten polymorphic primers were screened from 100 primers and 99 bands were amplified, of which 95 were polymorphic and the polymorphic rate was 95.96%. The results of the analysis using POPGENE were: nei, s gene diversity index (H) is 0.3036; Shannons information index (I) is 0.4585. All these indicate that the genetic diversity of Anthurium is high. According to the cluster analysis chart, 56 Anthurium varieties were divided into 12 categories.  Conclusion  the results of cluster analysis showed that the ISSR analysis results had a large correlation with the color of the sepals.And the ISSR molecular marker technique can be applied to the identification of Anthurium varieties. Princess Alexia Violet, Fiorino, Sumi, Caixia, Thunderbird Luxury, Black Queen and King have unique traits, They have a long genetic distance from each other and can be used as a female parent for new varieties breeding and variety improvement, and can also be preserved as an excellent germplasm resource.
Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Fragrance Components from Different Varieties of Passion Fruit
PAN Wei, LIU Wen-Jing, WEI Hang, LUO Qin
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](0) [FullText HTML](0) [PDF 792KB](0)
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  Objective  The aim ofthis experiment was to analyze the fragrance composition and concentration, and find out themainfragrance components of passion fruit juice.  Method  Solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) were used to analyze fragrance components of these juice varieties. And variation analysis(VA) and principal component analysis(PCA) were also carried outby employing SPSS 19.0 software.  Result  A total of 68 fragrance components were identified, ofwhich 24 were in all the samples. The tota1 content offragrance components ranged from 2 882.80 μg·100 g−1~10 740.42 μg·100 g−1, among which 58 were identified in‘Zi Xiang (ZX)’, followed by‘Shi Sheng Zhu Xi Zi Guo(SSZ)’(56), ‘Tai Nong (TN)’(55), ‘Guava Taste Golden Fruit (GTGF)’(47)and‘Man Tian Xing(MTX)’(39).The average percentage contribution ofesters, alcohols, ketones, terpenes, alkanes, ethers and heterocycles to the total were83.1%、3.6%、4.8%、3.7%、2.3%、1.7%、0.8%.The results of PCA showed that1-Octanol, 4-Octenoic acid ethyl ether, ethyl butyrate,3-hexenyl hexanoate, β-idihydro-onone, ethyl hexanoate, 3-pentyl hexanoate, 3-hexenyl butanoate, hexyl hexanoate, 1-methyl-2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-enylpropyl acetate, 1-Cyclohexene-2,6,6-tetramethyl-propanol and hexyl acetate were the main fragrance compositions.  Conclusion  The main fragrance components of passion fruit were esters, alcohols, ketones, terpenes, alkanes, ethers and heterocycles. 1-Octanol, 4-Octenoic acid ethyl ether, ethyl butyrate, 3-hexenyl hexanoate,, β-idihydro-onone, ethyl hexanoate, 3-pentyl hexanoate, 3-hexenyl butanoate, hexyl hexanoate, 1-methyl-2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-enylpropyl acetate, 1-Cyclohexene-2,6,6-tetramethyl-propanol and hexyl acetate were the main fragrance compositions. There were significant differences in fragrance concentration among these varieties (P<0.05).
Optimization of chicken proteolysis process by response surface methodology
YU Ya-hui, CHEN Qin-wen, LI Xiao-ting, FANG Ting
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](0) [PDF 0KB](0)
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  Objective  Stepwise dual-enzymatic hydrolysis method was used to optimize chicken enzymatic hydrolysis process, Provide technical reference for preparing better quality chicken flavor.  Method  Animal protease and complex protease were used as enzymatic enzymes. The free amino acid concentration and peptide concentration were used as indicators. On the basis of single factor experiment, the Plackett-Burman design was used to figure out important influencing factors. Then the steepest climbing test was used to approximate the maximum response area, and the response surface optimization test center point was determined. Finally, the three indexes of free amino acid concentration, polypeptide concentration and thermal reaction product flavor score were selected as the evaluation basis, and the Box-Behnken response surface optimization method was adopted. The method of chicken protein double enzyme stwo-step enzymatic hydrolysis and its effect on the flavor of chicken flavor were discussed, and the optimal level of important parameters was determined.  Result  The results showed that the total enzyme loading, total duration and solid-liquid ratio were the main influencing factors. The response values were 0.82%, 7.26h, and 1 4.40, respectively. The predicted composite score was 89.41, and the actual score was 88.97. The model was reliable.  Conclusion  The multi-indicator response surface method was used to optimize the conditions of chicken proteolysis, which could improve the enzymatic hydrolysis effect and prepare a chicken flavor with better flavor.
Effects of different potassium application levels on sugar metabolism and related enzyme activities of Ficus carica
GUO Ao, LIN Xu-jian, GAO Huan-huan, ZHENG Xue-lian, CHEN Mo, ZHENG Guo-hua
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](0) [PDF 0KB](0)
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  Objective  To provide theoretical basis for rational fertilization of fig fruit and improvement of quality and yield of fig fruit by investigating the internal regulation mechanism of potassium application on sugar metabolism of fig fruit,  Method  The 2-year-old 'Bojihong' fig was used as the test material. Under the premise of conventional cultivation and management, four levels of K2SO4 were added to carry out the control experiment. The application amount of potassium were CK (0 g·plant−1), K1 (125 g·plant−1), K2 (250 g·plant−1), K3 (375 g·plant−1). The content of soluble sugar, starch and the activity of enzymes related to sugar metabolism were measured under different potassium application levels, and the correlation between different indexes was analyzed.  Result  (1) Fructose and glucose were the main soluble sugars in fig fruit, and their contents increased with the development of fig fruit. The change trend of starch content and soluble sugar content is opposite, and the whole trend is decreasing. (2) Compared with the control, the content of soluble sugar and sugar components in fig fruit was significantly increased, and the content of starch in the middle and late stage of fruit development was decreased. When the application amount of potassium was 250g·plant−1 (K2), the content of soluble sugar increased the most, which was the most suitable amount. (3) The activity of AI and SS (decomposition direction) in the early and late stage of fig fruit development was significantly increased by appropriate potassium application, which had little effect on the activity of NI at the same stage, but significantly increased the activity of NI in the fruit development and maturity, and promoted the accumulation of fructose and glucose in the fruit. The activities of α - amylase and β - amylase increased gradually and kept at a high level with proper application of potassium, which promoted the conversion of starch to soluble sugar. Appropriate application of potassium increased the SPS activity of fig at all stages of development, but had little effect on SS (Synthesis direction), and promoted the accumulation of sucrose.  Conclusion  Appropriate application of potassium can improve the activities of enzymes related to sugar metabolism, promote the decomposition of starch and the accumulation of soluble sugar in fruit.
The research on cold injury index of Camellia sinensis cv. Fuding-dabaicha, the main variety in Guizhou Province
HOU Shuang-shuang, GU Shu-hong, GU Xiao-ping, XUE Xu, HAN Shu-mei, HU Jia-min, LIU Yu-peng
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](0) [PDF 0KB](0)
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  Objective  In order to ascertain the cold injury index of Camellia sinensis cv. Fuding-dabaicha which was the main variety in Guizhou Province, which was important for more accurate tea meteorological index insurance and agro meteorological services of teas.  Method  the physiological indexes under different chilling weather process which is simulated in the artificial climate chamber reflexed growth state of teas under chilling stress were measured. The semi-lethal temperature of teas was determined by fitting the Logistic function, which could quantification the cold injury index of teas under different chilling weather process.  Result  There were two results. The first one was the physiological features of response to under low temperature stress. With the increase of low temperature, SOD activity showed an increasing trend, MDA showed the trend of increasing at first and then decreasing, and the relative electric conductivity showed a continuous increasing trend. The second result was related to the semi-lethal temperature of teas. The semi-lethal temperature of teas were different with different cold injury weather process, and the longer the chilling damage duration was the higher the semi-lethal temperature would be. When the cold weather lasted for 3 d, 5 d and 7 d, the semi-lethal temperature was 1.5 ℃, 1.8 ℃ and 2.6 ℃ respectively.  Conclusion  The results showed that the growth responses of Camellia sinensis cv. Fuding-dabaicha was closely related with low temperature intensity and duration: the harm of low temperature below 3 ℃ was more serious than that above 3 ℃; the harm of cold injury lasting for 7 days was more serious than that lasting for 3 days and 5 days. And the semi-lethal temperature increased with the extension of the duration of chilling injury. As a result, the establishment of the cold injury index should be based on the local cold injury climate characteristics.
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2019, 34(11): 1-2.  
[Abstract](55) [FullText HTML](37) [PDF 327KB](5)
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Identification of CIPK Family in Rice and qRT-PCR Analysis on OsCIPK5 Induced by Magnaporthe oryzae
YU Si-si, LUO Xi, LIAN Ling, XU Hui-bin, CHEN Li-ping, WEI Yi-dong, CAI Qiu-hua, XIE Hua-an, ZHANG Jian-fu
2019, 34(11): 1237-1245.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2019.11.001
[Abstract](98) [FullText HTML](45) [PDF 870KB](0)
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  Objective  The family of calcineurin B-like protein-interacting protein kinase genes (CIPKs) in rice was studied using the latest sequencing data to further understand the signal transduction involving a variety of kinases in plants in respond to environmental changes.  Methods  The structures of CIPKs in Arabidopsis thaliana and rice were analyzed. Combining the bioinformatics and qRT-PCR technology, expressions of the CIPK familie and that of the genes induced by M. grisea in Japonica rice cv. 'Yunyin' were compared.  Results  A total of 31 OsCIPK genes were identified in the rice genome databank. The phylogenetic tree analysis showed that these 31 OsCIPKs could be divided into 5 subfamilies, which had different structural characteristics of exon-intron and UTR. The expression of OsCIPK5, which was selected from a trend cluster of the gene expressiong profile of 'Yunyin' induced by M. grisea, could be induced by M. grisea.  Conclusions  It appeared that the intron deletion and fragment duplication played an important role in the expansion of OsCIPK family in rice, and that OsCIPK5 expression was induced in 'Yunyin' by M. grisea.
Genetic Variations on Major Traits of 37 Chinese Yam Germplasms
ZHANG Wu-jun, CHEN Jing-ying, LIU Bao-cai, Zhao Yun-qing, HUANG Ying-zhen, CHEN Ying
2019, 34(11): 1246-1254.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2019.11.002
[Abstract](84) [FullText HTML](37) [PDF 672KB](3)
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  Objective  Genetic variations on major traits of local Chinese yam germplasms in Fujian were evaluated for development and breeding of high-quality varieties.  Method  The 24 selected traits on 37 yam varieties (Dioscorea polystachya) were studied with the diversity, correlation, principal component, and cluster analyses.  Result  The variation coefficients on the quantitative phenotypic traits of the germplasms ranged from 21.01% to 68.26%. That of the tuber was greater than those of the aboveground parts of a plant. The descriptive traits had diversity indices ranging between 0.281 and 1.349. Those on the growth potential of aboveground parts as well as those on the shape, skin smoothness, and fibrous root number of tubers were greater than 1. There was a significant correlation between the leaf, petiole growth, and stem girth of the aboveground parts and the tuber development. Therefore, the tuber yield of a plant could be estimated by the aboveground observations. The cumulative contribution by the top 5 principal components that reflected the aboveground growth of shoots and leaves as well as the underground yam yield was 80%, while the first principal component alone contributed 43.76%. The cluster analysis classified the 37 germplasms into 4 groups with the Dioscorea alata being the highest on phenotypic diversity.  Conclusion  The diversity of the germplasm collection of Chinese yams in the province were abundant. The tubers were more diversified than the stems and leaves among the germplasms. There were correlations among the growth of aboveground plant parts and the traits related to the tuber yield which could be used for production estimation.
Phenotypic Diversity on Inflorescence of Macadamia spp. Germplasms
WAN Ji-feng, ZENG Hui, YANG Wei-hai, ZHANG Han-zhou, LU Chao-zhong, CHEN Ni, CHEN Jing, LUO Lian-fang
2019, 34(11): 1255-1261.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2019.11.003
[Abstract](71) [FullText HTML](36) [PDF 759KB](5)
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  Objective  Phenotypic diversity of inflorescence from a collection of 40 Macadamia spp. was determined to evaluate and better utilize the resources.  Method  Using the “Standards for Description and Data Analysis on Macadamia” and the “Techniques and Codes for Evaluating Macadamia Germplasms” as references, this study was conducted. Data were subjected to cluster and principal component analyses.  Result  The inflorescence characteristics of the plants showed that 90% of the germplasms had creamy white flowerets, 50% of the flowerets opened sequentially from the base to the top of inflorescence axis, and 77.5% of them did not flower in batch. The maximum coefficient of variation on inflorescence length was 26.30%, and the minimum 8.60%. The cluster analysis based on 6 phenotypic characteristics of the inflorescence divided the 40 germplasms into two groups at an euclidean distance of 4.79. The categorization was mostly determined by the inflorescence length and floweret count. The 6 phenotypic characteristics composed of 3 independent principal components (i.e., floweret count, floweret color, and flowering sequence) constituting 71.752% of the total variance, The principal component analysis directly demonstrated the phenotypic characteristics of inflorescence which basically agreed with the results obtained by the cluster analysis.  Conclusion  The phenotypic diversity of macadamia inflorescence was abundant among the germplasms. The inflorescence length, floweret count, floweret color, and opening order of floweret were the dominant factors constituted to the diversity on the inflorescence.
Correlation between Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in 5' Regulation Region of IL-8 and Coccidiosis-Resistance of Jinghai Yellow Chicken
WANG Xiao-hui, YU Hai-liang, ZOU Wen-bin, MI Chang-hao, DAI Guo-jun, ZHANG Tao, ZHANG Gen-xi, XIE Kai-zhou, WANG Jin-yu, SHI Hui-qiang
2019, 34(11): 1262-1269.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2019.11.004
[Abstract](61) [FullText HTML](24) [PDF 741KB](0)
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  Objective  Correlation between the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in the 5' regulation region of IL-8 and the disease resistance to Eimeria tenella of chickens was studied.  Method  Direct DNA sequencing was performed to determine SNPs in IL-8 gene of Jinghai yellow chicken. Predicted transcription factors before and after mutation were analyzed to correlate between SNPs and coccidiosis-resistance of the birds.  Result  There were 3 SNPs at the mutation sites of T-550C, G-398T and T-360C detected in the target region that formed CT-, TT- and GG-genotypes with heterozygous degrees between 0.436 and 0.471 and PIC between 0.25 and 0.5. In a Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium state, SNPs were moderately polymorphic. A bioinformatics analysis confirmed that the original transcription factor binding sites in the genes had all been altered after the mutation. The expression of IL-8 of TC-genotype mutated at T-550C was significantly higher than that of TT-genotype. The coccidiosis-resistance indicators including GSH-PX, CAT, IL-2, IL-6 and IFN-γ in TC-genotype were higher than that in the other two genotypes, though not significantly. In genotypes mutated at G-398T, the SOD activity of TT-genotype and the CAT activity of GT-genotype were significantly higher than those of GG-genotype; the NO content of TT-genotype extremely significantly different from that of GG-genotype and significantly different from that of GT-genotype; and, the IL-2 expression of TT-genotype significantly higher than that of GT-genotype. Whereas, in the genotypes mutated at T-360C, the SOD activities of TT- and TC-genotypes were extremely significantly different or significantly different from that of CC-genotype; the NO contents of TT- and TC-genotypes significantly higher than that of the CC genotype; and, the IL-2 and IL-8 expressions of the TT genotype significantly higher than those of CC-genotypes.  Conclusion  It appeared that the TT-genotype with mutated G-398T or T-360C site would be more resistant to the parasitic attack by E. tenella than the other genotypes, and that hybrids of the genotypes carrying T-550C mutation would be more resistant than the homozygous counterparts. Thus, the significant regulation function of the polymorphism in the 5' regulation region of IL-8 gene could conceivably be targeted for breeding coccidiosis-resistant chickens.
Degradation of Peanut Straws in Rumen of Fuqing Goats
CHEN Xin-zhu, LIN Ya-ting, HUANG Xiu-sheng, LIU Jing, ZHUANG Yi-fen, WENG Bo-qi, HUANG Qin-lou, TANG Zhao-xiu, CHEN Bing-dian
2019, 34(11): 1270-1275.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2019.11.005
[Abstract](59) [FullText HTML](25) [PDF 548KB](0)
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  Objective  Digestion of peanut straws (PSs) collected at different seasons and areas in rumen of Fuqing goats was studied.  Method  Three Fuqing goats permanently in-planted with ruminal cannula were fed PS collected at different seasons and areas. PS1 was harvest at Qingliu on October 28, 2016, PS2 at Qingliu on June 19, 2017, PS3 at Fuqing on June 3, 2017, and PS4 at Qingliu on November 10, 2017. The in-rumen degradation rates of PS with respect of dried matters (DM), acidic detergent fibers (ADF), and neutral detergent fibers (NDF) in 4, 8, 16, 24, 36, 48 and 72 h were determined by placing the PS samples in Nylon bags.  Result  PS2 and 4 had higher crude protein but lower NDF than the other specimens. The DM, ADF, and NDF degradation rates of all PSs were similar and increased with time in rumen. In 48–72 h, 50%–57% of DM in PS was degraded.  Conclusion  PS 1 and 4 were shown to have higher degradation rate in the goat rumen indicating a preference in choosing PS harvested in autumn over the other time in a year.
Expression of BMPs in Developing Chicken Embryos
YAN Cheng-guang, ZHANG Yu-jie, TANG Wei-qi, XING Jin-yi
2019, 34(11): 1276-1282.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2019.11.006
[Abstract](79) [FullText HTML](35) [PDF 779KB](0)
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  Objective  Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) gene in chicken embryos at different developmental stages was studied for further investigation on the functions of the gene.  Method  One hundred fertilized AA broiler eggs were used for the study. Six eggs were randomly selected each time on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 9th, 12th, 15th, and 18th day (designated as E1 to E18) after hatching. Whole embryos from the eggs of E1 to E6 and the brain, heart, and liver tissues as well as the leg muscles from the embryos of E12 to E18 were collected to determine the expressions of BMP2, BMP4 and BMP7 in the samples by qPCR.  Result  The BMP2 expressions of E1–E6 increased at first and then decreased. Those of E4, E5, and E6 significantly higher than that of E1 (P<0.05). BMP2 in the brain of E12 was significantly higher than that of E1 (P<0.05), but that of E18 became significantly lower than that of E1 (P<0.01). For E9, the expression of BMP2 in the heart was significantly higher than that for E1 at P<0.05 and for the leg muscles at P<0.01. In the later stages of embryonic development, such as E15 and E18, the expressions in the heart and liver were significantly or extremely significantly lower than those of E1 at P<0.05 or P<0.01. The expression of BMP4 of E1–E6 also increased initially and followed by a decline. Compared to E1, E3–E6 in embryo and E9 in brain, heart, liver and leg showed significantly higher on BMP4 expressions at P<0.05 or at P<0.01. BMP7 of E4 expressed significantly higher than E1 at P<0.01, and of E5 and E6 at P<0.05, but lower of E2 or E3 with a statistic significance at P<0.01 on E2. From E4 through E18, the BMP7 expressions in the embryo and brain declined gradually, and that in the brain reached a significant level at P<0.01 on E18. In the heart, the lowest expression was observed on E12 (P<0.01), and in the liver on E12 and E15 (P<0.01).  Conclusion  As hatching progressed, the expressions of BMP2, BMP4 and BMP7 in the embryo firstly increased then decreased to arrive at a peak on E4, while BMP2 in the heart, liver and leg decreased on E9, E12, E15 and E18. It indicated that the BMP genes played a crucial role in the early stages of organ formation in fertilized chicken eggs. The effect diminished gradually as the embryonic development came close to completion.
Polymorphism of IGFBP2 Gene Relating to Meat Quality of Sujiang Pigs
TAO Yong, LU Jian-hao, REN Shan-mao
2019, 34(11): 1283-1287.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2019.11.007
[Abstract](92) [FullText HTML](37) [PDF 708KB](4)
Abstract:
  Objective  Genetic variation of the insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 gene (IGFBP2 gene), relating to the meat quality of Sujiang pigs was studied.  Method  The polymorphism of IGFBP2 gene was detected by PCR-RFLP in Sujiang pigs, Jiangquhai pigs and Duroc pigs, and the association between IGFBP2 gene polymorphism and meat quality traits in Sujiang pigs was analyzed.  Result  One common Msp Ⅰ polymorphism in the intron 2 of IGFBP2 gene was found in the 3 pig populations. It consisted of 3 genotypes (AA, AB and BB) and two alleles (A and B) with AB being the dominant genotype and B the prevailing allele. The polymorphisms of the genes from the 3 pig species were moderate on their information content. The meat marbling of Sujiang pigs with the AA and AB genotypes was significantly more than that with the BB genotypes ( P< 0.05). The meat color of the pigs with the AA genotype was significantly more intense than that with the AB and BB genotypes ( P<0.05).  Conclusion  The PCR-RFLP- Msp I polymorphism in the intron 2 of IGFBP2 gene of Sujiang pigs appeared to significantly correlate with the marbling and color of the pork. Consequently, the gene could potentially be used to study the meat quality improvement through breeding.
Effects of Short-term High-temperature Exposure on Growth, Development and Reproduction of Herpetogramma basalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)
CHU Shi-hai, CONG Sheng-bo, LI Ru-hai, HUANG Qi-chao, HOU You-ming
2019, 34(11): 1288-1293.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2019.11.008
[Abstract](120) [FullText HTML](46) [PDF 594KB](3)
Abstract:
  Objective  Effects of short-term high-temperature exposure on the growth, development, and reproduction of Herpetogramma basalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) were studied for a potential biocontrol application.  Method  The 1st instar larvae of the insects were treated at 35℃ or 40℃ for 2 h, 4 h, 8 h or 16 h to determine the rates of larval survival, pupation, and emergence as well as the pupal weight, developmental duration, and female fecundity of the following generations.  Result  The development and reproduction of H. basalis were affected in varying degrees under the treatments. The larval survival rate decreased significantly after the exposure, e.g., from 65.83% in the 1st instar to 28.33% in the 5th instar under 35℃/16 h. The pupation and emergence rates were hardly affected. On the other hand, when treated for 16 h, the larval development took 0.90d at 35℃, and 1.74 d at 40℃, longer than control. The pupal period was not affected, but the adult lifespan shortened by one day after a 35℃ or 40℃ exposure for 8 h or 16 h. The average individual pupal weight decreased slightly after 8 h or 16 h of the exposures. The fecundity of female adults reached its lowest level after being exposed to either of the two temperatures for 16 h, which did not significantly alter the egg hatching rate.  Conclusion  Depending upon the severity and duration, the short-term high-temperature exposure mainly decreased the survival rate and inhibited the development of H. basalis. The moth could complete its normal development even at a relatively high temperature and maintain the population continuity, which benefits biocontrol. Nonetheless, due likely to the summer heat, the larval mortality rose and population of H. basalis declined in the season.
Sensitivities of Rhizoctonia solani to Propiconazole and Pyraclostrobin on Rice Plants in Guizhou Province
LIU Shi-jiang, DING Yi, ZHAO Qi-jun, LI Ming, WEN Xiao-dong, SONG Xing-chen, LI Rong-yu
2019, 34(11): 1294-1301.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2019.11.009
[Abstract](115) [FullText HTML](84) [PDF 791KB](6)
Abstract:
  Objective  Sensitivities of Rhizoctonia solani on rice to propiconazole and pyraclostrobin were determined for proper pesticide application on the disease control in Guizhou.  Method  Mycelium growth rate was used as the criterion for testing the pesticide sensitivities of 52 strains of R. solani collected from 4 regions in the province.  Result   The EC50 of propiconazole on the pathogens ranged from 0.058 μg·mL−1 to 2.381 μg·mL−1, averaging 0.422 μg·mL−1. That of pyraclostrobin were between 0.077 μg·mL−1 and 0.936 μg·mL−1, averaging 0.313 μg·mL−1. Strains of low resistance to the pesticides were found in Meitan area of the province with a resistance frequency of 16.7% on propiconazole and 13.3% on pyraclostrobin. A cluster analysis showed no significant correlation between the pesticide sensitivities and the geographical origins of the pathogens, nor between the two pesticides.  Conclusion  A large number of the R. solani isolates in the study were highly sensitive to propiconazole and pyraclostrobin, and no apparent cross-resistance observed between the two fungicides. Hence, alternative application of them for disease control was deemed appropriate.
Effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B1619 on Growth and Fusarium Wilt of Continuous Cropping Watermelon
WANG Xia-wen, MENG Jia-li, LIU Yong-feng, CHEN Zhi-yi, ZHANG Zhi-hui, Yu Xiang
2019, 34(11): 1302-1308.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2019.11.010
[Abstract](62) [FullText HTML](25) [PDF 906KB](1)
Abstract:
  Objective  Efficacy and optimum application of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B1619 to control Fusarium wilt on continuous cropping watermelons were investigated.  Methods  A field experiment with a random block design was conducted for 4 consecutive years to examine the effects of the microbial agent applied by different means and dosages on the growth and disease occurrence of the watermelon and the major microflora in the rhizosphere soil.  Results  At a rate of (18+9) g B1619 to fill each hole dug into the ground around the plants was the selected method to deliver a 43.20% increase on watermelon yield for the study. The sugar contents in the center and peripheral by the rind of watermelon and marketability of the harvested melons increased significantly with the application. The application also changed the rhizosphere microflora community where the continuous cropping of watermelon was practiced. The bacteria count in the rhizosphere soil was 1.93 times of control at flowering stage and 1.27 times at maturing stage, while the number of pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum, reduced to 33.38% of control at flowering stage and 37.19% at maturing stage.  Conclusion  The “hole-digging” method of applying B1619 at (18+9) g/hole rendered a high yield, supreme fruit quality, and the much reduced incidence of Fusarium wilt on the watermelons.
Histology and Morphology of Alimentary Canal of Thrips palmi Karny
MU Ye, CHEN Fen-fen, WEI Hui, ZHENG Xue, CHEN Yong, ZHANG Jie
2019, 34(11): 1309-1314.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2019.11.011
[Abstract](84) [FullText HTML](38) [PDF 1139KB](2)
Abstract:
  Objective  Histology and morphology of the alimentary canal of Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a pest that causes serious damage to its host crops by not only feeding on them but also transmitting viruses, were studied to investigate the infection route of Orthotospovirus on plants.  Method  Structure of the alimentary canal in T. palmi was examined under the laser scanning confocal microscopy, and the transmission electron microscopy applied for the ultrastructure observation.  Result  The alimentary canal was shown to consist of foregut, midgut, hindgut, and malpighian tubules. The foregut included pharynx, oesophagus, crop, and cardia. The midgut was made of anterior, middle and posterior parts with no peritrophic membrane. In the anterior midgut, a thin membrane was present on the surface of microvilli. Morphologically, the intestinal wall of posterior midgut had a pleated and a flat side with no membrane on the microvilli surface. The hindgut composed of ileum and rectum. The ileum had strong muscles and a cuticle layer covering the lumen. Inside the rectum, microorganisms seemed to thrive. Four malpighian tubules were located at the junction between the midgut and hindgut extending freely into the hemocoel with numerous vesicles in the cells and abundant microvilli around the irregular-shaped lumen.  Conclusion  The morphology and functions of the alimentary canal in T. palmi were closely examined to initiate further studies on the pathogenic infection route on crops through the insect.
ASE/UHPLC-FLD Determination of Florfenicol and Florfenicol Amine Residues in Pigeon and Quail Eggs
DIAO Zhi-xiang, WANG Bo, ZHANG Pei-yang, WANG Xu-tang, XIE Kai-zhou, ZHAO Xia
2019, 34(11): 1315-1322.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2019.11.012
[Abstract](109) [FullText HTML](51) [PDF 796KB](2)
Abstract:
  Objective  To establish an analytical method for simultaneous detections of florfenicol (FF) and its metabolite, florfenicol amine (FFA), in animal-derived foods.  Method  Samples of pigeon and quail eggs were extracted by the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) method with acetonitrile-ammonia (98:2, V/V) as the solvent. The extract was degreased and purified with acetonitrile-saturated n-hexane. A mobile phase consisting of 0.005 mol·L−1 NaH2PO4, 0.003 mol·L−1 sodium lauryl sulfate and 0.05% trimethylamine was used in the ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence (ASE/UPLC-FLD) determination of FF and FFA contents.  Result  Highly correlated linear relationships (R2>0.999 2) within the limit of quantitation (LOQ) were achieved between the peak area and concentration on the target compounds. The average recoveries of the method at the spiked levels of 50.0, 100.0, 200.0 μg·kg−1 and LOQ ranged from 84.69% to 98.04% with RSDs less than 3.7%. The method delivered the limit of detection (LOD) and LOQ on FF in the pigeon eggs at 4.8 µg·kg−1 and 11.2 µg·kg−1, respectively, and those on FFA, at 1.9 µg·kg−1 and 4.8 µg·kg−1, respectively; whereas, those on FF in the quail eggs, at 4.7 µg·kg−1 and 10.6 µg·kg−1, respectively, and those on FFA, at 1.8 µg·kg−1 and 4.6 µg·kg−1, respectively.  Conclusion  The newly developed analytical methodology was rapid, simple, sensitive, and considered suitable for FF and FFA determinations in pigeon and quail eggs.
Effect of Bacterial Agent Added to Fertilizer on Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Mountain Red Soil
WANG Xiao-peng, HU Kun, TONG Chen-xiao, ZHU Qiao-lian, HUANG Zhao-chang, MAO Yan-ling
2019, 34(11): 1323-1331.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2019.11.013
[Abstract](56) [FullText HTML](40) [PDF 1152KB](1)
Abstract:
  Objective  Effect of addition of a bacterial agent to pig manure or a compound fertilize in mountain red soil on the greenhouse gas emissions was investigated.  Method  In a pot experimentation on the red soil from hilly regions, a compound fertilizer (F), pig manure (FM), combination of FM and a low level bacterial agent (FMI1), combination of FM and a medium level bacterial agent (FMI2), or combination of FM and a high level bacterial agent (FMI3) was applied to examine the differences on the greenhouse gas emissions.  Result  The addition of the bacterial agent resulted in (1) a reduction on the emission fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O with a significant difference between the high level and the low or medium level of the application; (2) an 84.33% decrease on the cumulative CO2 emission, 76.39% on CH4, and 86.44% on N2O over CK; (3) a significantly reduced comprehensive greenhouse effect (GWP) which was enhanced with increasing addition level; and, (4) a significant improvement on the nutrient content in the soil.  Conclusion  Applying the bacterial agent along with pig manure or a compound fertilizer significantly reduced the emission fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O from the mountain red soil and GWP. The higher the dose of the bacterial agent, the greater beneficial effects would result.
Composition and Diversity of Forests at Caohai National Nature Reserve
HE Bin, LI Qing, XUE Xiao-hui, LIU Yong
2019, 34(11): 1332-1341.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2019.11.014
[Abstract](86) [FullText HTML](35) [PDF 1080KB](1)
Abstract:
  Objective  Composition and diversity of the forest communities at the Caohai National Nature Reserve were studied to maximize the conservation of the natural resources.  Method  In relatively concentrated and representative areas at the reserve, a survey was conducted on 16 lots, 20 m×30 m each in size, randomly selected following the typical sampling protocol. On each lot, 5 shrub plots sized 2 m×2 m each and 5 herb plots sized 1 m×1 m each were assigned along the diagonal line to observe the species, morphology, and varieties of the plants in a communities.  Result  Totally, 74 species, 62 genera, and 34 families were found on the plots. Among them, 14 species were arbors; 23, bushes; and, 37, herbs. Species stratification was evident as the existing varieties of arbor class were dominated by Pinus yunnanensis, P. armandii, Cunninghamia lanceolata, Quercus aliena, Populus yunnanensis and Carpinus pubescens; whereas, the shrub and herb classes varied depending on the community type and eco-environment.All individual plants at the reserve showed a normal bell-shaped vertical distribution, a partially slant inversed J-shaped distribution on trunk-diameter, and an inverted J-shaped distribution on canopy-width, indicating constant and healthy growth of the forests. The 6 species that had their critical indicators scored greater than 5 with significant differences on the vertical, trunk and canopy structures. Both the richness and diversity indices of the communities ranked in the order of: herb class>shrub class>tree class, and the uniformity index: shrub class>herb class>tree class.  Conclusion  Located at the apex on a land in transition from eastern Yunnan plateau to Guizhou plateau, the Caohai National Nature Reserve displayed the typical regional characteristic low variety and diversity but relatively stable composition of plants on its forest communities. There were numerous plants with sizable trunks in the C. lanceolate community that were declining and would continue to decline in number. The diversity on tree trunk-diameter of the C. pubescens community was exceedingly low, especially on plants with large trunk girth. Therefore, a special attention to protect and manage such communities needed be placed for forest conservation.
Purification and Characterization of a Lectin from Dictyophora indusiata Mycelia
LIN Yong, LIU Jun-feng, TANG Xiao-luan, ZHANG Yue-fen, DAI Ya-bin
2019, 34(11): 1342-1346.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2019.11.015
[Abstract](81) [FullText HTML](28) [PDF 725KB](1)
Abstract:
  Objective  Physicochemical properties of the physiologically active lectin component in Dictyophora indusiata Fisscher, a popular edible mushroom in China, were studied to determine the medicinal function.  Method  A lectin compound was isolated and purified from the mushroom mycelia using physiological saline extraction followed by precipitation in a 20%~75 % (NH4)2SO4 solution and purification with DEAE-Sephrose and Sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography. Physicochemical properties of the purified mycelial lectin, DIL, were characterized through the analyses of hemagglutination activity, sugar inhibition, pH and thermal stabilities, and interaction with metal ions.  Results  DIL showed one band in SDS-PAGE and a molecular weight of 43.6 kDa. It could agglutinate the erythrocytes from pigeon, rabbit, duck, and chicken. The hemagglutination on pigeon erythrocytes was inhibited by D-galactose and N-acetyl-amino-glucose. Being heat-unstable, DIL declined in agglutinating activity significantly at 50℃ in 10min. It remained highly active within pH 4.0~8.0 and was affected by Ca2+ or Mg2+ but not Mn2+ or Zn2+.  Conclusion  It appeared that DIL was hemagglutination-active in the presence of Ca2+ and/or Mg2+ on animal erythrocytes.
A System for Evaluation on Tea Plantations
YE Wei-jiao, Li Zi-qiang, GAO Shui-lian, YU Wen-quan, LUO Bo-ren, YANG Jiang-fan
2019, 34(11): 1347-1354.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2019.11.016
[Abstract](68) [FullText HTML](31) [PDF 747KB](1)
Abstract:
  Objective  A system to evaluate individual operations of the rapidly transforming tea industry in Fujian was proposed to aid the much needed managerial and service upgrading for the plantations.  Method  With references to the indicators used on the forest and cultivated land quality evaluations as well as the results from literature search and expert interviews, 27 criteria with respect to meteorology, soil, topography, plant quality, and plantation structure/safety relating to tea cultivation operations were designed for the evaluation. Weight on each indicating criterion was determined based on the results from the returned expert questionnaires and an analytic hierarchy process. Then, by combining the relevant theories and expert opinions, scoring standards for the secondary indicators were formulated to arrive at a mathematic equation to calculate the grading on quality of tea plantations.  Result  The weights of the primary indicators were 0.221 1 for meteorology, 0.38 for soil, 0.060 7 for topography, 0.221 1 for plant quality, and 0.117 1 for plantation structure/safety. And, there was a significant correlation between the primary indicators and the plantation quality as well as between the primary and secondary indicators.  Conclusion  The proposed system for quality evaluation on tea plantations in the province was designed based on the past experience and careful analysis. By specialist’s scoring on the designated criteria, a grade could be calculated to indicate the operational quality of a tea plantation providing clues and recommendations for improvements and/or upgrading.
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