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Effect of endogenous hormone content and gene expression related to hormone synthesis on tuber expansion of Bikeqi yam
AO Lan-ji-ya, JI Xiang, SHAO Ying, ZHAO Lingmin, ZHANG Yan-fang, HUO Xiu-wen
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](388) [FullText HTML](336) [PDF 692KB](11)
Abstract:
  Objective  To investigate the changes of starch content, reducing sugar content and soluble total sugar content in tubers, the changes of endogenous hormone content in tubers, the morphological indexes, physiological indexes and the analysis of variance of endogenous hormones during the process of tuber expansion. And the correlation between these indicators and endogenous hormones, lay the foundation for further study of the physiological mechanism of yam growth and development and guiding the high yield and quality cultivation of yam.  Method  Six kinds of endogenous hormones such as ABA, GA3, IAA, JA, ZR and IPA were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with different tuber lengths of Bikeqi yam. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the content of salicylic acid (SA), and to analyze the dynamic changes of source hormone content in different growth stages, and the correlation between morphological indicators of yam and endogenous hormones. The relationship between differentially expressed genes associated with endogenous hormones and endogenous hormones was explored for the effects of these factors on the expansion of yam tubers.  Result  The contents of IAA, ZR, ABA, JA and SA were positively correlated with the morphological indexes of yam tuber; the contents of GA3 and IPA were negatively correlated with the morphological indexes; the contents of IAA were positively correlated with the perimeter and diameter of yam tuber; the contents of GA3 were negatively correlated with the length of tuber; the genes correlated with IAA were negatively correlated with the contents of IAA  Conclusion  Endogenous hormones IAA, ZR, ABA, JA and SA promote the expansion of yam tuber; endogenous hormones GA3 and IPA inhibit the growth of yam tuber; endogenous hormones IAA promote the thickening of yam; endogenous hormones GA3 inhibit the elongation of yam; the down-regulation of IAA related genes can promote the synthesis of IAA, that is, regulate the content of IAA.
Research Progress on Breeding Technology of Sheep Resistance to Gastrointestinal Nematode Infection
YAN Xiao-fei, LIU Ming-jun
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](86) [FullText HTML](58) [PDF 624KB](2)
Abstract:
The disease caused by gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection is one of the most important factors impose influence on sheep health and productivity, in order to prevent such disease, a traditional method is to use chemical anthelmintic and reinforce the management during feeding. However, the following factors pose a serious challenge to the traditional method of chemical control, such as the emergence and spread of resistant strains, the severe drug residues as well as environmental pollution. On the other hand, with the developments of techniques in molecular genetics and its appliance in resistance breeding of GIN sheep disease, improving the disease resistance of sheep to counter the GIN infection has become an important complement strategy to prevent such disease. A large number of studies have shown that the traditional phenotypic selective traits can be widely used, but the genetic progress is slow and the accuracy is poor. Molecular marker is highly deterministic, but resistance traits are controlled by micro-effect polygenes, and intergenic interaction is obvious. The use of molecular marker assisted selection alone is insufficient in comprehensiveness, therefore these two approaches should be combined. Although a large number of resistance genetic markers and candidate genes of digestive tract nematodes have been screened out, the mechanism of resistance is still in experimental study because of the complexity. The correlation between disease resistance traits and production traits needs further study. In this paper, the resistance breeding technology and screened gene location of GIN infection were comprehensive reviewed, and the shortcomings in the present study were indicated, which provided a reference for the future research on resistance breeding of GIN infection.
Effects of Water Activity and Temperature on Growth and Toxin-producing of Aspergillus flavus MI18-S1 on Tartary Buckwheat Grains
ZHOU Piao, ZHANG Xiao-na, CHEN Qing-fu
[Abstract](304) [FullText HTML](222) [PDF 1118KB](2)
Abstract:
  Objective  Effects of water activity (aw) and temperature on the growth and toxicity of Aspergillus flavus on mature grains of tartary buckwheat were studied to determine the safety conditions for harvest, processing, transportation, and storage of the crop.  Method  Varied medium aw (i.e., 0.87, 0.90, 0.93, 0.95 and 0.99) were created by additions of glycerol to culture A. flavus MI18-S1 isolated from the infected grains for a 7 d test at 15, 21, 28, 35 or 42℃. Colony diameter on petri dish was measured, spore count calculated from the blood cell counter board, and aflatoxin content determined by HPLC.  Result  The fungus was found to produce aflatoxins B1 and B2, predominately B1, but not G1 or G2. The highest spore count and toxicity were generated at 28℃ and aw=0.93. At a temperature either below 15℃ or above 42℃, the fungal growth and toxin-production slowed or ceased. Within the range between these temperatures, the aflatoxin content increased at first and followed by a decline. A multivariate linear regression analysis showed no significant correlation between the colony diameter and the toxin production. Instead, the amount of aflatoxin generated in the culture was mainly affected by the aw and temperature of the environment, and most critically, sporulation of the fungus. And, sporulation of the fungus was significantly affected by the aw, temperature of the environment, the amount of aflatoxin generated in the culture and the colony diameter.  Conclusion  The growth and aflatoxin production of A. flavus on buckwheat grains were at peak when stored at 28℃ on a medium with aw of 0.93.
Breeding of a New Strain Freesia Hybrida‘Red Jade’
LUO Yuan-hua, Fang Neng-yan, FAN Rong-hui, YE Xiu-xian, Zhong Huai-qin, LIN Bing, LIN Rong-yan, Wu Jian-she, HUANG Min-ling
[Abstract](60) [FullText HTML](36) [PDF 717KB](2)
Abstract:
  Objective  A new variety of new color, good adaptability and strong stress tolerance Freesia was bred to optimize the variety structure and meet the needs of consumers.  Method  A red variety Red Lion from Netherlands was crossed with a purple variety Royal Blue in March 2006. In March 2007, a purplish red target hybrid F1 individual R1B1-1 was selected. After screened and expanded by many generations of clones in 2008-2012, it showed stable characters, and was named Red Jade. The comparison test between Red Jade and its parents was carried out in 2013-2015. SRAP molecular identification confirmed that Red Jade was the hybrid offspring of its parents in 2016. The multi-point tests were carried out of Red Jade in 2017-2019.  Result  The new variety, Red Jade, was thus obtained. It was planted from late September to early October in Fuzhou, Fuqing, Zhenghe and other places and blossomed from late February to early March of the next year, with a florescence of 30-40 days. The upper surface of the perianth was purple red(RHS: N74A), and the upper surface of the throat was yellow(RHS: 14A). It had an average leaf length of 41.8 cm, flower stem length of 41.3 cm, flower stem diameter of 4.9 mm, branch count of 3.9, main inflorescence length of 7.2 cm, main inflorescence floret count of 8.9, flower diameter of 3.9 cm and reproduction coefficient of 6.7. Red Jade had good adaptability and strong resistance for cultivation in Fujian and area of similar frost-free climate.  Conclusion  The combination of sexual hybridization and asexual propagation is an important way to breed new varieties of Freesia hybrid.
Community structure and diversity of rhizosphere bacteria between resistant and susceptible mulberry varieties to bacterial wilt
WU Huazhou, LOU Dezhao, TU Nana, GENG Tao, LU Fuping, JI Xuncong, WANG Shuchang
[Abstract](72) [FullText HTML](39) [PDF 1022KB](1)
Abstract:
  Objective  The community structure and diversity of rhizosphere bacteria between resistant and susceptible mulberry varieties to bacterial wilt were analyzed to explore the correlation between bacteria community and the resistance to bacterial wilt.  Method  The V3-V4 regions of 16S rRNA in rhizosphere bacteria were amplified and sequenced using high-throughput sequencing technology on Illumina MiSeq to analyze the bacteria community structure, diversity and function.  Result  The results suggested: 1) The phylum and genus structure of dominant rhizosphere bacteria were similar in resistant (Kangqing 283 × Kangqing 10) and susceptible (Guisangyou 62) mulberry varieties. The dominant phyla were Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Bacteroidetes, and the dominant genera were MND1, Gaiella, Nitrospira, Haliangium and Streptomyces. 2) Although there was no significant difference in Alpha diversity of rhizosphere bacteria community between resistant and susceptible mulberry varieties, the NMDS ordination significant (stress 0.005<0.05). The important function bacteria groups of resistant mulberry varieties were Nitrospira, Acidobacteriia, Nitrospirales, Solibacteraies, Acidobacteriales, Nitrospiraceae, uncultured Acidobacteria, Solibacteraies Subgroup 3 and Solibacteraies Subgroup 2 uncultured other; meanwhile Ilumatobacteraceae and TRA3 20 other in susceptible mulberry varieties. 3) COG classify showed that 763 different rhizosphere bacteria orthologs were identified according to Wilcoxon Algorithm, only 17.25 % of all COG orthologs.  Conclusion  There was no significant difference in the richness and diversity of rhizosphere bacteria community between resistant and susceptible mulberry varieties, while the important function bacteria groups were significantly different, indicated the certain relevance between rhizosphere bacteria community and the resistance of mulberry to bacterial wilt. These results were of great significance for further research on the rhizosphere microecological characteristics of mulberry, and the selection and application of functional rhizosphere strains against bacterial wilt.
Identification of germplasm resources of Agaricus bisporus in southern Fujian by Somatic Incompatibility Test and SSR
YUAN Bin, KE Li-na, CHEN Guang-xiang, LIAN Yan-ping, ZHANG Zhi-hong, JI Peng-wei, WU Zhen-qiang
[Abstract](62) [FullText HTML](37) [PDF 678KB](0)
Abstract:
  Objective  Analyze and evaluate the genetic relationship and diversity among germplasm resources of introduced Agaricus bisporus, which provide a theoretical basis for the identification, preservation and molecular breeding of mushroom germplasm resources in southern Fujian.  Method  Analysis of genetic diversity bsed on the nutritional incompatibility test and SSR molecular marker technology among the 9 tested Agaricus bisporus strains.  Result  The results of the nutritional incompatibility test showed that the antagonistic effects of the tested strains were different, which were divided into 5 groups, according to the presence or absence of the antagonistic effect.SSR molecular marker technology analysis showed that the similarity coefficient reached 0.77, the tested strains were clustered into 4 groups. Group 1 includes HK; the second group includes 901 and A15; the third group includes Fumo 52; the fourth group includes As2796, W192, W2000, Fumo 58, Fumo 38.  conclusion  The results of two methods were almost consistent.Combining these two methods, it is inferred that the strain HK has a relatively distant relationship with other tested strains, especially with other domestic strains tested, Which can be used as a breeding parent material.
Effects of different expression vectors on the transient expression of GFP gene in CHO cells
WANG Yan, ZHANG Chao-lin, WANG Juan, DENG Yue, SU Xiao-rui, TAN Fei-fei, TIAN Ke-gong
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](214) [FullText HTML](109) [PDF 704KB](6)
Abstract:
  Objective  The transient expression of ExpiCHO cells can quickly and efficiently produce recombinant proteins, which saves a lot of time for screening effective recombinant proteins. The selection of cell lines, the choice of expression vectors, and the choice of transfection reagents are the factors that restrict the transient expression of ExpiCHO cells. The important factor of this study is to select vectors with higher transient expression in CHO cells.  Methods  Using the GFP gene as the target gene, different eukaryotic expression vectors were used to construct GFP recombinant plasmids and transiently transfected into ExpiCHO-S cells. The fluorescence quantity and intensity of GFP expressed by different vectors were observed 4 days after transfection; cells were lysed 8 days after transfection, the lysate supernatant was harvested, and the expression levels of different vectors were identified by SDS-PAGE. At the same time, the GFP protein in the lysate supernatant was purified by His Trap FF affinity chromatography column, and the expression of GFP protein of different vectors was compared by Western Blot.  Results  The pCDNA3.1-GFP and pCDNA3.4-GFP vectors expressed the largest amount of fluorescence, the pCIneo-GFP vector expressed the strongest fluorescence intensity, the pCMVHA vector expressed the least amount of fluorescence, and the weakest fluorescence intensity. The results of SDS-PAGE and Western Blot showed that the protein expression of pCDNA3.1-GFP, pCDNA3.4-GFP and pCIneo-GFP recombinant plasmids was higher than that of pCHO-GFP and pCMVHA-GFP recombinant plasmids.  Conclusion  The eukaryotic expression vectors pCDNA3.1, pCDNA3.4 and pCIneo with high expression were screened to provide a basis for vector selection for the subsequent transient expression of recombinant proteins.
Effects of Changes in Endogenous Hormone Content and Expression of Hormone Synthesis Related Genes on Tuber Growth of Bikeqi Yam
AO Lanjiya, JI Xiang, SHAO Ying, ZHAO Lingmin, ZHANG Yanfang, HUO Xiuwen
[Abstract](40) [FullText HTML](34) [PDF 684KB](0)
Abstract:
  Objective   To investigate the changes of starch content, reducing sugar content and soluble total sugar content in tubers, the changes of endogenous hormone content in tubers, the morphological indexes, physiological indexes and the analysis of variance of endogenous hormones during the process of tuber expansion. And the correlation between these indicators and endogenous hormones, lay the foundation for further study of the physiological mechanism of yam growth and development and guiding the high yield and quality cultivation of yam.   Method   Six kinds of endogenous hormones such as ABA, GA3, IAA, JA, ZR and IPA were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with different tuber lengths of Bikeqi yam. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the content of salicylic acid (SA), and to analyze the dynamic changes of source hormone content in different growth stages, and the correlation between morphological indicators of yam and endogenous hormones. The relationship between differentially expressed genes associated with endogenous hormones and endogenous hormones was explored for the effects of these factors on the expansion of yam tubers.   Result   The contents of IAA, ZR, ABA, JA and SA were positively correlated with the morphological indexes of yam tuber; the contents of GA3 and IPA were negatively correlated with the morphological indexes; the contents of IAA were positively correlated with the perimeter and diameter of yam tuber; the contents of GA3 were negatively correlated with the length of tuber; the genes correlated with IAA were negatively correlated with the contents of IAA   Conclusion   Endogenous hormones IAA, ZR, ABA, JA and SA promote the expansion of yam tuber; endogenous hormones GA3 and IPA inhibit the growth of yam tuber; endogenous hormones IAA promote the thickening of yam; endogenous hormones GA3 inhibit the elongation of yam; the down-regulation of IAA related genes can promote the synthesis of IAA, that is, regulate the content of IAA.
Effect of exogenous GB on seed germination and antioxidant enzyme system of two kinds of Astragalus membranaceus under salt stress
Han Duo-hong, Wang Een-jun, Zhang Yong
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](100) [FullText HTML](70) [PDF 742KB](4)
Abstract:
  Objective  To study the relieving effect of exogenous betaine on Astragalus membranaceus seeds and seedlings under salt stress. To investigate the mechanism of exogenous betaine on the alleviating effect of two kinds of Astragalus membranaceus seeds and seedlings under salt stress.  Method  The seeds and seedlings of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge.var.mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao and Astraglus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. under 100 mmol·L−1NaCl stress were treated with exogenous GB of 0~40 mmol·L−1, and the germination rate, germination potential, germination index, vigor index and relative salt damage rate of the seeds were determined. The activities of SOD, CAT, POD, APX, GR and DHAR in the seedlings were determined.  Result  The results showed that under the exogenous GB treatment of 30 mmol·L−1, the germination rate of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge.var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao and Astraglus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. increased by 159.07 % and 167.01 %, and the relative salt damage rate decreased by 74.38 % and 76.18 % compared with that of the salt stress group. Treatment of Astragalus membranaceus seedlings under salt stress with exogenous GB of 10~30 mmol·L−1 increased SOD, CAT and POD activity, and increased APX, GR and DHAR activity, but the increase of Astraglus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. was greater than that of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge.var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao.  Conclusion  The exogenous GB of 30 mmol·L−1 could effectively alleviate the damage of Astragalus membranaceus to the plant caused by salt stress, but the salt tolerance and response to exogenous GB of Astraglus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. were better than that of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge.var.mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao.
Genetic analysis of heading stage of combinations in hybrid rice
CHEN Bin
[Abstract](144) [FullText HTML](59) [PDF 569KB](1)
Abstract:
The heading stage of rice is a complex genetic character, which determines the ecological zone to which rice varieties can adapt. In this study, Six genetic generation populations (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1-1, BC1-2) of three hybrid rice combinations (Tianyou Huazhan, Hengfengyou Huazhan and Wufengyou Huazhan) were constructed with their male "Huazhan". The "main gene + polygene hybrid genetic model" was adopted for genetic analysis of plant height traits in each generation. The results showed that: The optimal genetic models of the three hybrid combinations at heading stage were all MX1-AD-ADI.The main genetic heritability of F2 population in the three combinations was 10.13 %, 12.64 % and 13.65 %, and the polygenic heritability was 88.45 %, 85.94 % and 83.66 %, respectively.The variation of main gene heritability of BC1-1 population was 15.16 %−23.66 %, and that of polygene was 65.33 %−69.75 %. The genetic pattern of heading stage was similar to that of F2 population, which was mainly controlled by polygenes.However, the heading stage of the three backcrossing populations BC1-2 with maintainer as the recurrent parent was affected by the co-influence of the main gene and polygene, the variation of the main gene heritability was 42.03 %−47.78 %, and the variation of polygene heritability was 45.17 %−50.77 %.The results showed that the heading stage was controlled by multiple genes and the genetic basis was complex. The selection of heading period in breeding should be based on the genetic characteristics of different populations.
Principal Component Analysis and Comprehensive Evaluation of Drought Resistance-related Traits in Cold Region Rice
Zhang Gong-liang, Li Yi, Wei Yuan-yuan, Zhao Hai-cheng, Chen Ke-xin, Huang Ji-qing, Liu Meng-hong, Li Hong-yu
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](112) [FullText HTML](78) [PDF 846KB](2)
Abstract:
  Objective  In order to established a comprehensive evaluation index system for drought resistance of rice transplanted to maturity in cold regions, suitable germplasm resources for drought-resistant rice were screened.  Method  This study used panicle weight, panicle number, seed setting rate and other 13 traits as indicators, principal component analysis method and cluster analysis method were used to evaluate drought resistance of 30 rice germplasm resources in cold regions. Select 25 samples with drought resistance characteristic index value as input and corresponding drought resistance comprehensive evaluation value as output, and use Error Back Propagation(BP)neural network algorithm to construct a learning model; the remaining 5 samples are validation samples to evaluate learning The prediction accuracy of the model. Transform three sets of learning samples to construct three learning models, compare the prediction accuracy of the three models, and verify the rationality and stability of the modeling method.  Result  Used principal component analysis, 13 individual indicators under drought stress were transformed into 5 independent comprehensive indicators, with a cumulative contribution rate of 83.761%. Based on the comprehensive evaluation of drought resistance of the test materials, cluster analysis was performed, and the 30 test materials were divided into four categories: strong drought resistance, drought resistance, intermediate drought resistance, and drought sensitivity. The first type of strong drought resistance is Nongfeng 3055, the second type of drought resistance includes 12 materials, and the third type of intermediate drought resistance includes 6 materials. The four types of drought-sensitive types include 11 materials. Based on the correlation analysis results of rice trait indexes and drought resistance comprehensive evaluation values, six indexes of panicle weight, grains per panicle, seed setting rate, yield, biological yield and economic coefficient were selected as characteristic indexes of rice drought resistance index suitability evaluation. Taking the characteristic index value is the input layer, and the comprehensive evaluation value is the output layer, the BP neural network learning model can be established to realize the quantitative prediction of the suitability of rice drought resistance index. The learning model established by this method has high prediction accuracy and stability. The relative error between the predicted value and the actual value of the three learning models obtained by transforming the learning samples does not exceed 10%. After the actual value and the model predicted value are linearly fitted The determination coefficients R2 are all greater than 0.9.  Conclusion  The constructed BP neural network learning model can realize the quantitative prediction of rice drought resistance index suitability, and has high prediction accuracy and stability. It can predict the characteristic index of rice drought resistance suitability evaluation more accurately than single regression analysis; Weight, grains per panicle, Seed setting rate yield, biological yield and economic coefficient can be used as comprehensive indicators for the identification of agricultural drought resistance. Among the 30 cold rice varieties tested, Nongfeng 3055 is a highly drought-resistant germplasm resource.
Development of duplex PCR assay for detection of hyper-virulent Staphylococcus aureus in rabbits
WANG Jin-xiang, SUN Shi-kun, CHEN Yan-feng, CHEN Dong-jin, SANG Lei, XIE Xi-ping
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](97) [FullText HTML](56) [PDF 1131KB](1)
Abstract:
  Objiective  To develop a duplex PCR assay for detecting of hyper-virulent Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in rabbits.  Methods  The assay was developed based on the specific primers targeting the two virulence genes of nuc and pvl of S. aureus isolated from rabbits in Fujian Province, the concentration of the primer and the annealing temperature of the duplex PCR assay were optimized, and the specificity, sensitivity and accuracy of the assay were also tested.  Results  The results showed that the optimal primer concentration and annealing temperature of the assay were 0.6 μmol·L−1 and 59.6℃, respectively. The assay was specific for hyper-virulent and low-virulent S. aureus strains isolated from rabbits, and had no cross-reactions with Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli that isolated from rabbits and negative control. The assay was highly sensitivity and the detection limit of which could reach to 10 pg and 100 fg genomic DNA for hyper-vrulent and low-virulent strains, respectively. Both of the coerficient of intra-assay and inter-assay variations were 0. Moreover, the result of the duplex PCR assay showed a coincidence of 100% with that of reported single PCR assays targeting nuc and pvl gens.  Conclusion  The duplex PCR assay based on the specific primers targeting the two virulence genes of nuc and pvl of S. aureus isolated from rabbits in Fujian Province is a powerful method with high specificity, sensibility, repeatability and accuracy, which will helpful in detecting the hyper-virulent S. aureus strain in rabbit.
Effects of Photosynthetic Characteristics and Aroma Components in Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius) of different Shading
TANG Jin-xuan, YU Huan, GUO Cai-quan, QIN Xiao-wei, BAI Ting-yu, ZONG Ying
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](181) [FullText HTML](62) [PDF 930KB](3)
Abstract:
  Objective  The aim of this study was to explore the effects of different shading on photosynthetic characteristics, growth and aroma components of Pandan.  Method  Artificial shading was used in pot experiment, including full exposure, 30% shading, 60% shading and 90% shading, respectively, to analyze photosynthetic parameters, growth and aroma components of pandan responding under shading.  Result  The net photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance of 30% and 60% shading were significantly higher than that of full exposure and 90% shading in pandan. The photosynthesis of pandan improved in 30% and 60% shading, and leaf number increased. Twenty-seven volatile aroma compounds were identified in pandan with these four shading treatments. These four shading treatments shared 10 aroma compounds, and showed significant difference in the relative contents among different shading treatments, including the main aroma composition 2-acetyl-1-pyrrolidine and phytol, squalene, 1-propanol, acetol, 3-methyl-2-(5H)-furanone, neophytadiene, ethyl palmitate, 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran and ethyl linoleate. The contents of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-methyl-2-(5H)-furanone, 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran, ethyl linoleate and phytol in the leaves of pandan were significantly higher in 30% and 60% shading treatment than in other treatments. The contents of squalene and phytol in 30% shading treatment were significantly higher than in other treatments. The contents of acetol, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-methyl-2 -(5H) -furanone, neophytadiene, ethyl palmitate and ethyl linoleate in 60% shading treatment were significantly higher than in other treatments.  Conclusion  30% ~ 60% shading can promote the growth of pandan, increase the content of main aroma components, and improve the flavor quality.
Observation onFloral Organogenesis and Developmental Processesinred Pitaya (Hylocereusmonacanthus)
SUN Peiguang, CHENG Zhihao, SUN Changjun, GUO Suxia, GUO Gang, MIAO Hongxia, LI Hongli, WU Qiong
[Abstract](58) [FullText HTML](85) [PDF 1323KB](3)
Abstract:
  Objective  Study on occurrence and distribution, anatomical structure, and morphological characteristics in floral organs of red pitaya (Hylocereus monacanthus)will provide a theoretical basis forthe division of flower differentiation stage andflowering regulation in pitaya.  Method  Flower buds at different developmental stagesof red pitaya were collectedto observe the changes of floral organogenesis and developmental processes by theVHX-5000 digital microscope.  Result  Flower buds occurred from below the spines on branches.The sepal primordia and petal primordiumwereinitiated spirally. The stamen primordia weremulti-round and born at the base of the perianth, while its origination at proximal axis were early than those at distal axis.Anthers,including four pollen sacs with the symmetrical arrangement and longitudinally-split characteristics,grown under the bottom. Finally, 30 carpels primordia appeared simultaneously,whilethe multiple carpel primordia were used to form the ovary.There is one locule in the ovary. Two rows of ovules were inserted on the abdominal suture, which belonged to circinotropous ovules. The surface of mature stigma had a lot of papilla cells, and it was divided into 24-30 clefts. The style washollow type with stylar canal, and the inner surface of stylar canal densely covered with passage cells.  Conclusion  The order of floral organogenesis of red Pitaya wassepal primordia,petal primordia,stamen primordia,and carpel primordia. In addition,there wereoverlaps in occurrence time of some floral organs.
RNA-Seq Analysis of the Taizhou Goose’ livers before and after the first laying
ZHANG lei, ZHANG Jingqi, ZHANG Weiyue, MI Juan, HE Wenjie, WANG Jian
[Abstract](146) [FullText HTML](40) [PDF 1053KB](0)
Abstract:
  Objective  This study aimed to improve the gene structure of Taizhou goose, and to explore the liver regulation mechanisms of the first laying Taizhou goose.  Method  RNA-Seq technology was used to analyze the transcriptome of Taizhou Goose’ livers before and after the first laying, qRT-PCR method was used to verify some of the data from RNA-Seq results, then Go annotation and KEGG analysis was used to analyze the function of differentially expressed genes (DEGs).  Results  Raw reads from RNA-Seq data were selected with quality control, 73, 596, 894~79, 837, 756 clean reads were screened from 6 samples. With FPKM value, the gene expression was estimated quantitatively, total 202 differentially expressed genes were screened, of which 100 were up-regulated and 102 were down-regulated. By GO annotation, all DEGs were enriched to 42 biological function categories. By KEGG analysis, total 63 pathwyas were enricheed, among which 5 significant pathways were screened, including Drug metabolism-cytochrome P450, Nitrogen metabolism, Pentose and glucuronate interconversions, Retinol metabolism and Steroid hormone biosynthesis pathway. These 5 pathways were related to the lipid metabolism and reproduction process regulation through functional analysis.  Conclusion  The livers’ transcriptome of Taizhou goose before and after the first laying were analyzed through RNA-Seq technology, DEGs were mostly enriched in lipid metabolism and reproduction process. The results provided the basis for the study of liver regulation mechanism during the first laying, and supported new data onto the further breeding of Taizhou goose.
Effects of AMF and organic fertilizer application on nitrogen transformation and nitrogen cycling genes in rhizosphere soil of sweet corn
ZUO Mingxue, SUN Jie, XU Ruyu, YUAN Yinlong, GU Wenjie, LU Yusheng, XU Peizhi, XIE Kaizhi
[Abstract](47) [FullText HTML](34) [PDF 1163KB](0)
Abstract:
  Objectives  To understand the effect of AMF and organic fertilizer application on the transformation of nitrogen and the functional genes of nitrogen-cycling microorganisms in rhizosphere soil of sweet corn, we can not only clarify the microbiological process of AMF combined with organic fertilizer on the nitrogen cycling of sweet corn and soil, but also provide theoretical support for the increase of utilization rate, the reduction of chemical nitrogen application, and the improvement of nitrogen efficiency.  Methods  In this study, sweet corn was used as the model plant, and the field experiment was carried out with seven fertilization treatments on the basis of the same fertilization level (P2O5 150 kg·hm-2) and (K2O 225 kg·hm-2): (1) CK, no nitrogen application; (2) OF, optimized fertilization; (3) ORF10, organic nitrogen replacing 10% chemical nitrogen; (4) ORF20, organic nitrogen replacing 20% chemical nitrogen; (5) ORF10 + AMF, organic nitrogen replacing 10% chemical nitrogen + inoculation by Glomus versiforme; (6) ORF20 + AMF, organic nitrogen instead of 20% chemical nitrogen + inoculation by Glomus versiforme; (7) CK + AMF, no nitrogen application + inoculation by Glomus versiforme; each treatment had three replicates. The mechanism of AMF combined with organic fertilizer on the nitrogen cycling of sweet corn rhizosphere soil were revealed by using physical and chemical index analysis and high-throughput sequencing platform (GeoChip 5.0) to analyze the microbial community structure and nitrogen cycling functional genes of sweet corn rhizosphere soil under different fertilization treatments.  Results  Glomus versiforme addition significantly increase nitrogen use efficiency and the activity of nitrogen metabolizing enzyme.There were significantly positive interaction effects of Glomus versiforme addition on agricultural efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer (NAE), partial productivity of nitrogen fertilizer (PFP), absorption and utilization efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer (NRE), nitrate reductase (NR), glutamic acid synthetase (GOGAT) and glutamine synthetase (GS) activity in the combination of increased application of surface balloon mold and organic-inorganic fertilizer, while a significantly negative interaction effect was found in nitrogen content (P<0.001). Among all treatments, ORF20 + AMF had the highest nitrogen use efficiency. The NAE, PFP, NRE and NPE increased by 31.15%, 28.08%, 6.95%, and 10.41% compared with OF treatment, respectively. The relative intensity of NiR, narB, nasA, nirA, nirB, napA, nrfA, nifH, ureC genes in the treatment group with AMF (CK + AMF, ORF10 + AMF, ORF20 + AMF) was significantly higher than that in the control treatment without AMF application (CK, ORF10, ORF20). The results further showed that the relative strength of hao and hzo genes decreased by 17.78% and 4.84%, which reduced the possibility of nitrogen release through the chemical speciation of N2 and NO3--N.  Conclusion  In conclusion, The relative intensities of the genes (NiR, narB, nasA, nirA, nirB), while dissimilated nitrogen reduction genes (napA, nrfA), nitrogen fixation genes (nifH), ammonification genes (ureC), nitrification genes (hao) and ammoxidation genes (hzo), driving the transformation of soil nitrogen to plant available nitrogen, improving the agronomic efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer (NAE), nitrogen partial production (PFP), nitrogen utilization rate (NRE), and the activity of nitrogen metabolizing enzyme. Therefore, the combined application of organic fertilizer and Glomus versiforme can be considered as a promising strategy to reduce the application of chemical nitrogen fertilizer and increase the yield of sweet corn.
Identification and Analysis of ExpansinGene Family of 'Sanyueli' (PrunussalicinaLindl.) and the Red-fleshed Mutant based on Transcriptome
FANG Zhizhen, LIN Yanjuan, JIANG Cuicui, ZHOU Danrong, PAN Shaolin, YE Xinfu
[Abstract](51) [FullText HTML](31) [PDF 1309KB](0)
Abstract:
  Objective  Expansins are cell wall-associated proteins that widely exist in plants, they play important roles during plant growth and development through regulating the flexibility of cell wall. This study aims to analyze the characteristics of Expansin gene family and their expression profiles during fruit ripening.  Method  In total, 33 Expansin gene family members were identified.  Result  The length of plum Expansin proteins ranged from 176 to 460 aa, with the predicted molecular weight varied from 19.21 to 51.33 kD and the isoelectric point in the range of 4.62 to 9.83.Most of them were predicted to be stable hydrophilic proteins located in the extracellular space. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that plum Expansin scan be divided into four groups: 22 EXPAs, 6 EXPBs, 1 EXPLA and 4 EXPLBs. All plum Expansins proteins contain the DPBB_1 domain and Pollen_allerg_1 domain. Conservative motif analysis shows that Expansin members of the same group shared conserved motif compositions. 9PsARF genes were differentially expressed during fruit ripening in 'Sanyueli' and its red-fleshed mutant. The expression pattern of EVM0015785, EVM0016777, EVM0010710, EVM0022202, EVM0002390 and EVM0024996 in Sanyueli were significantly different from that in the red-fleshed mutant.  Conclusion  These results may laid a foundation for elucidating the function of Expansin family genes during ripening of plum fruits.
Bioinformatics analysis of Longan MYB14 and construction of its gene expression vector
LI Haoran, DING Feng, XU Jiongzhi, ZHANG Shuwei, PAN Jiechun, PENG Hongxiang, HE Xinhua, WANG Ying, LI Lin, WANG Jinying, HUANG Xing, TAN Chunlu
[Abstract](56) [FullText HTML](38) [PDF 1125KB](0)
Abstract:
  Objective  To clone the MYB14 gene family of MYB-related gene in Longan, and to analyze its bioinformatics and construct its expression vector.  Methods  The full-length sequence of MYB14 gene of Longan was obtained by transcriptome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis, further, we designed specific primers to clone and bioinformatics the full-length open reading frame sequence, and constructed the over-expression vector.  Results  MYB14 gene belongs to the TBP-like subfamily of MYB-related family. The length of ORF is 831 bp. It encodes 276 amino acids and has one MYB binding site. The protein is a non-transmembrane hydrophilic protein, and has 57 amino acid phosphorylation sites in the cytoplasm. Its secondary structure is mainly composed of irregular crimp, and-helix structure, secondary structure and tertiary structure predicted highly consistent, homologous gene phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the gene and cannabis closest relationship, at the same time, the successful construction of plant overexpression vector PBI121-MYB14.  Conclusion  The MYB14 gene of Longan was cloned, and the expression vector PBI121-MYB14 was successfully constructed.
Distribution of Wild Nectar Source Plant Resources in Wuyishan National Nature Reserve
LIN Hanzhe, HUA Weiping
[Abstract](116) [FullText HTML](81) [PDF 910KB](2)
Abstract:
  Objective  The purpose of this paper were mastered the species diversity and spatial distribution of wild nectar source plants in Wuyishan National Nature Reserve,promoted the coordinated development of beekeeping industry in Wuyishan National Nature Reserve, increased the production and income of community residents in Wuyishan National Nature Reserve, and reasonably planed and formulated peak areas for Wuyishan National Park(pilot).  Method  By using the method of foot survey and plant sociology, the data of species, quantity and distribution of wild nectar source plants in Wuyishan National Nature Reserve were collected. The diversity and vertical distribution pattern of wild nectar source plants in Wuyishan National Nature Reserve were analyzed by means of variance analysis, cluster analysis and β diversity Cody index.  Result  In Wuyishan National Nature Reserve, there were 338 species of wild nectar source plants belonging to 149 genera, 61 families. They were mainly auxiliary wild nectar plants, supplemented by main wild nectar plants. The wild nectar source plants had more flowering period in spring, less in autumn and winter, and the value of honey powder is higher than that of others. The differences of family, genus and distribution quantity of wild nectar source plant below 1200 m are not significant. Compared with low altitude, they were significant differences in the families, genera and distribution numbers of wild nectar plants between 1200-1500 m, 1500-1800 m, 1800-2100 m. The distribution pattern of wild nectar plants in the whole altitude showed a single peak distribution. Cluster analysis and β diversity Cody index analysis showed that the low altitude wild nectar plants were rich, especially in the 600-900 m altitude section.  Conclusion  Wild nectar source plant resources were rich in Wuyishan National Nature Reserve, and their distribution law was related to the mountain altitude of the mountain ecosystem.
Physiological Response and Cold Resistance Evaluation of Four Crassulaceae Varieties under Low Temperature Stress
CHEN Yi-quan, LIN Rong-yan, PAN Hong, LIN Bing, YE Xiu-xian
[Abstract](59) [FullText HTML](50) [PDF 976KB](0)
Abstract:
  Objective  To study the physiological response and cold resistance ability of Crassulaceae plants under low temperature stress and screen out cold materials for breeding and promotion.  Method  Eight physiological indexes were measured under different low temperature conditions (9,6,3,0 and −3 ℃). A mathematical model combining principal component analysis with membership function method was constructed for evaluation of cold resistance among 4 varieties, and the results were verified by recovery growth test.  Result  The four kinds of Crassulaceae plants had significant difference in physiological changes.The MDA and Pro contents showed an upward trend, however, the soluble sugar, relative water content and photosynthetic pigment varied with varieties. The relative water content of Crassula Campfire increased most, and the MDA release was largest under −3℃ temperature. The photosynthetic pigment of Crassula oblique 'Gollum' kept the most stable, and the soluble sugar and Pro contents of Sedum lucidum Obesum accumulated fastest. Eight indexes could be integrated into two principal components, and the cumulative contribution rate was 90.59%, which was of biological significance. The order of cold resistance ability was Sedum lucidum Obesum > x Sedeveria 'Blue Elf' > Crassula oblique 'Gollum' > Crassula Campfire, which was consistent with the result of recovery growth experiment.  Conclusion  The survival rate of Sedum lucidum Obesum was 85.5% under -3℃, and the plant grew well with stable morphological characters, while the survival rate of Crassula Campfire was only 25.5%, which showed its limited adaptability to low temperature.
Effect of seed soaking with isosteviol on seed germination and seedling growth of Brassica napus under salt stress
ZHANG Liang, LI Yu-ting, XIA Wen-jing, XU Xiao-feng
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](137) [FullText HTML](95) [PDF 853KB](6)
Abstract:
  Objective  In order to explore the role of seed soaking with isosteviol in Brassica napus germination and seedling growth under salt stress.  Method  We used Brassica napus variety Qinyou No.2 as experimental materials, adding different concentrations of isosteviol under salt stress, soaking seeds of Brassica napus. The seeds were measured for germination rate, germination index and vital index; the seedlings were measured for various physiological-biochemical indexes including height, length of root, chlorophyll content, root activity, malonaldehyde (MDA) content and antioxidant enzyme activity.  Result  The results showed that seed germination ability was inhibited by salt stress, and 140 mmol·L−1 NaCl is the sensitive concentration of salt stress to Brassica napus seeds. Under salt stress, the seed was soaked with 1×10−8 mol·L−1 isosteviol, which could significantly increase root activity, chlorophyll content and SOD activity in cotyledons of Brassica napus seedlings. Compared with CK2 (The seed was soaked with deionized water and germinated with 140 mmol·L−1 NaCl), which were increased 27.33%, 36.94% and 83.31%, respectively. At the same time, which could significantly reduce MDA content in cotyledons. Compared with CK2, which was increased 32.11%. However, 1× 10−9 mol·L−1 isosteviol treatment significantly increased POD and CAT activities in the cotyledon of Brassica napus seedlings. Compared with CK2, which were increased 140.80% and 47.25%, respectively. In addition, the seed was soaked with isosteviol, which could significantly improve the germination rate, germination index and vigor index of Brassica napus seeds, and significantly increase the seedling height and root length.  Conclusion  Seed soaking with isosteviol of appropriate concentration (1×10−9~1×10−8 mol·L−1), which could enhance the salt resistant ability of Brassica napus. and alleviate damage to seed germination and seedling growth caused by salt stress.
Comparative analysis of essential oil content and components in different parts of Melaleuca alternifolia
XIAO Yu-fei, QIN Zi-hai, ZHAGN Ye, ZHANG Xiao-ning, CHEN Bo-wen, LIANG Zhong-yun, QIN Yu-feng, Yan Chao, LIU Hai-long
[Abstract](117) [FullText HTML](48) [PDF 666KB](0)
Abstract:
  Objective  The chemical components and contents of essential oil in 4 different parts (young leaves, old leaves, branches and stems) of Melaleuca alternifolia were compared and analyzed, and the representative chemical components of M. alternifolia essential oil were selected, which provided data support and theoretical guidance for essential oil components simplified analysis of M. alternifolia and further development and utilization.  Method  The chemical components and contents of essential oil were determined by GC-MS and the representative chemical components were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA).  Result  The plant of M. alternifolia in this study belong to terpinen-4-ol type. There was significant difference in the chemical composition and content among different parts, especially between the stem and the other three parts. The oil yield and content of terpinen-4-ol and1,8-cineole of stem were significantly different from the other three parts. The principal component analysis showed that β-phellanderene, viridiflorene, viridiflorol, aromadendrene, p-cymene, γ-terpinene, terpinen-4-ol, α-thujene, α-pinene, globulol, α-terpineol, 1,8-cineole and limonene were the representative composition of M. alternifolia essential oil.  Conclusion  In order to improve oil yield and oil quality, young leaves, old leaves, branches should be selected as raw material for oil extraction. In order to simplify the analytical content, these 13 chemical components can be selected as representative characteristic chemical components of M. alternifolia essential oil, which can basically represent the difference of essential oil chemical composition content.
A New Record of Ovary-glabrous Wild Tea Germplasm Resource Group in Fujian and the Observation of Its Ovarian Micro-morphology
WANG Ze-han, YU Wen-tao, FAN Xiao-jing, FANG De-yin, CAI Jie-ying, WANG Yuan-xun, YE Nai-xing
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](118) [FullText HTML](69) [PDF 1000KB](3)
Abstract:
  Objective  The main aim of the study is to observe the ovarianmicro-morphology of wild tea germplasms in Yunxiao and Zhao'an, which will provide references for the excavation and identificationof Fujian specific tea germplasm resources.  Method  The ovarian micro-morphological traitsof 29 wild tea germplasms wereobserved and analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM).  Result  The wild tea germplasms distributed in Yunxiao and Zhao'an are divided into two types: the ovary-glabrous germplasm and the ovary-trichome germplasm. The germplasms withnone, little and few trichomes on ovaries account for 72.4% of all germplasms. The trichome densitiesare different in ovary-trichome germplasms. And the trichomes are mainly distributed in the upper part of ovaries. The exineornamentations of the ovariesare divided into three types: the concave, the flat and theconvex. The exineornamentations of the ovariesof Yunxiao germplasms are mostly concave, while the exine ornamentations of the ovaries of Zhao'angermplasmsare mostly flat.  Conclusion  The study firstlyreported the group of ovary-glabrous wild tea germplasm resourcein Fujian Province. The ovarian micro-morphology traits of this group have obvious diversity, and the exine ornamentationsof the ovaries have obviousregionaldifferences in Yunxiao and Zhao'anwild tea germplasm resources.
Effects of Spanish river carbonatite (SRC) on soil condition and bacterial community structure in tea gardens
ZHAO Qian, SHI Longqing, HUANG Shiyong, DING Luping, Liette Vasseur, YANG Guang
[Abstract](59) [FullText HTML](57) [PDF 807KB](0)
Abstract:
  Objective  The effect of Spanish river carbonatite (SRC) on soil acidification, metal elements and microbial diversity and community structure in tea gardens were investigated to provide the scientific basis for soil improvement.  Methods  The changes of soil pH, heavy elements, bacterial diversity and community were evaluated.  Results  Field experiment and pot culture showed that the improvement of soil pH by SRC. Meanwhile, the improvement effect of SRC on heavy mental pollution in soil is significant. The pot culture results showed that low concentration of SRC significantly reduced the content of Cd and Cu in the soil. And the field experiment showed that the application of SRC significantly reduced the content of all tested heavymentals. In addition, the pot culture results showed that SRC had a significant impact on the microbial community structure. Similarly, the field experiment showed that application of SRC improved soil nutrients comparing with the control without SRC treatment.  Conclusion  Both field experiment and pot culture showed that SRC could increase soil pH, decrease heavy mental pollution, and improve bacterial diversity and community structure.
Study on dynamic change and color classification of ornamental crabapple leaves
ZHAO Pu-pu, ZHANG Quan-quan, JIANG Hao, LI Na, ZHANG Wang-xiang
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](165) [FullText HTML](80) [PDF 774KB](1)
Abstract:
  Objective  In order to explore the change rule of leaf color of different varietiesin ornamental crabapple, and to make classification of leaf color of different varieties, to provide beneficial reference for germplasm mining of ornamental crabapple variety.  Method  The color parameters and pigment content of leaves of 42 samples of ornamental crabapple were determined by chromometer and spectrometer.  Result  ①Based on the distribution of leaf color parameters luminance (L*), color saturation (C*), hue angle (h*) in the CIELCH color space from July to September, the overall location of July is found Relatively scattered, stratification occurred in August, and the overall sites were concentrated and shifted to the left in September.②The cluster analysis results of leaf color of growing plants in July divided 42 ornamental begonia samples into group A(L*: 28.95~32.63, C*: 12.32~14.60), group B(L*: 26.98~32.11, C*: 9.09~13.39), and group C(L*: 32.10~35.22, C*: 14.33~18.01); the luminance and color saturation of the three groups are significantly different, the luminance and color saturation of the C>A>B and C groups are significantly higher than other groups, and the leaves are bright and full, so the group C is classified as bright green.③The analysis of relative pigment content shows that the chlorophyll content of group B(4.285%) is significantly higher than that of group A (3.786%)and group C(3.785%). The green color is deeper, but its luminance and saturation are low, so the group B is classified as dark green. And group A is classified as green because of its indicators.  Conclusion  The nine varieties of bright green lines had the best color expression effect during the experiment period, and had the maximum utilization value for leaf varieties.
Isolation, Identification and Evaluation of a Phoxim-Degrading Bacterium D39
ZHAO Xiaoyan, ZHOU Fangyuan, WU Xiaoqing, ZHOU Hong-zi, ZHANG Guang-zhi, FAN Su-su, XIE Xue-ying, ZHANG Xin-jian
[Abstract](50) [FullText HTML](28) [PDF 1021KB](0)
Abstract:
  Object   In view of the problem that phoxim residues in agricultural and sideline products were seriously over standard, phoxim degrading bacteria were isolated and identified. Then the active site of phoxim degrading strain delftia sp. D39 was uncovered, the efficient degradation of D39 endoenzyme on phoxim containing wheat bran was studied as well. In order explore the application value of strain D39, the disease prevention effect of D39 was further studied.  Methods  Phoxim degrading bacteria were isolated by enrichment culture method, and identified by 16S rDNA sequences analysis combined with morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. The active site of degradation was determined by plate activity test. The degradation effect of D39 intracellular enzymes on phoxim in bran was determined by HPLC. The inhibitive efficacy of the strain D39 to five kinds of fungal phytopathogen with dual culture.  Results  A phoxim-degrading bacterium designated as D39 was isolated from the pesticide -polluted soil, and was primarily identified as Delftia sp. In this study, the D39 endoenzyme activity was measured by plate activity test and the extraction of crude endoenzyme was also carried out. The extracted endoenzyme was sprayed into bran containing 300 mg·kg−1 of phoxim, and the concentration of the endoenzyme in the bran was reached at 0.10 g·kg−1. After 11 hours of reaction at 25℃, HPLC analysis showed that the degradation rate of phoxim in bran could reach 100% by the endoenzyme. The inhibitive efficacy of the strain D39 to five kinds of fungal phytopathogen after 5d. The best average inhibitive rate of Delftia sp. D39 to Rhizotonia cerealis was 50.00% and the lowest average inhibitive of Delftia sp. D39 to Curvularia lunata was 21.05%.  Conclusion  The strain D39 can efficiently degrade phoxim residues in wheat bran. In the future, it is safer to use the degrading enzyme to degrade phoxim residues in agricultural and sideline products. This study provides a theoretical basis for the degradation of phoxim in agricultural and sideline products.
Enhancing Sentinel-2 Images for Accurate Identification of Rapeseed Crops in Mountainous Southwest China
OU Yanran, WANG Kexiao, YU Bao, HUANG Xiang, WANG Qian
[Abstract](123) [FullText HTML](90) [PDF 1149KB](10)
Abstract:
  Objective  Means to upgrade the resolution of the images obtained by the currently available Slentinel-2 optical imagery technology were explored for better identification of rapeseed crops in mountainous southwest China.   Method  Sentinel-2 images of rapeseed crops acquired from the satellite in space were modified using image reconstruction and fusion technology to increase the spatial resolution by varying the spectral bands. Image quality as to how accurate it could recognize rapeseed crops was evaluated based on a random forest, complex terrain model.   Result  ① The fusion treatment significantly enhanced the contrast on minute details and texture changes, greatly improved the sharpness, and increased the brightness of the images. Meanwhile, the gray curves of the main features remained basically unchanged before and after the treatment. ② The enhanced spatial resolution effectively facilitated vegetation classification. The overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient differed slightly at the resolution of 2m. However, the crop mapping accuracy was significantly improved from 91.30% to 95.65% by the red edge bands applied. ③ Different red edge bands exhibited varying effects on the recognition accuracy. The combination of C2 (visible light B2, B3, and B4-red edge B5-near infrared B8) and C1 (visible light B2, B3, and B4-near infrared B8) increased the accuracy by 4.75%. The combined C3 (visible light B2, B3, B4-red edge B5, and B6-near infrared B8) and C2 enhanced the accuracy by 1.21%. Although both red edge B5 and B6 bands could improve the overall accuracy, B5 was more effective than B6. The combination of C4 (visible light B2, B3, B4-red edge B5, B6, 7-near infrared B8) and C3 resulted in an increase on the mapping accuracy by 4.35% as well as a user accuracy by 0.57%. The red edge B7 was most effective of all. The random forest model showed, under the improved conditions, the normalized importance metrics of characteristic band for the blue band B2 to be 0.94; for the green band B3, 0.82; for the red band B7, 0.89; and, for the red edge B5, 0.75. The results, consistent with those obtained under the band combinations, indicated that B7 and B5 bands contributed more significantly to the accuracy improvement.   Conclusion  The spatial resolution of Sentinel-2 images could be significantly enhanced through image reconstruction and fusion. The accuracy of rapeseed crop identification by various band combinations was analyzed by the quantitative measurements of the importance of characteristic bands under the random forest classification model to arrive at the conclusion. As the first comprehensive study of its kind, the information obtained would be of value for further applications of the Sentinel-2 imaging system.
Isolation, Identification and Characterization of Omethoate-Degrading Strains Pseudomonas abietaniphila ZZY-C13-1-9
CHEN Rui, QU Jia, MEN Xin, DENG Yuan, SUN Xiao-Yu, ZHAO Ling-Xia, SHEN Wei-Rong
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](150) [FullText HTML](42) [PDF 794KB](0)
Abstract:
  Objective  To research whether the Omethoate residue in shed soil can be accelerate decomposed by a bacteria, a Omethoate-degrading bacteria screening out from soil sample.  Method  Single carbon source culture were used to screening out strains from soil sample. The strain was identified by morphology and its 16s RNA sequencing analysis. The degradation ability of the strain was determined by Molybdate Blue Spectrophotometry Method and HPLC. The degradation ability was verified by shaking flask and in lab. Artificial add Omethoate and microbial agents in the soil to verify microbial degrade ability in the soil.  Result  An Omethoate-degrading bacterium ZZY-C13-1-9, which exhibited excellent biodegradation capabilities towards 400 mg/L of Omethoate, and identified as Pseudomonas abietaniphila based on physiological-biochemical characteristics and a 16S rDNA sequence-based phylogenetic tree. The degradation ability of the strain was determined by Molybdate colorimetric and HPLC. 92.3% of omethoate(400 mg/L) in nutrient broth medium could be degraded within 240 hours. The strain ZZY-C13-1-9 could be tolerant to high concentration of DDVP and Dipterex. Laboratory soil tests showed that omethoate in soil(200 mg/L) could be degraded 59.2% in 45 days which keep temperature form 25℃ to 34℃ and moisture content from 25% to 30%  Conclusion  Screening out a strain which can degrade omethoate in soil.
Study on Production Performance of Hybrid Duck from Female Ji'an Red-feather duck × Male taiwan White Kaiya Meat-duck
ZHANG Wei-hong, LIU Lin-xiu, HUANG Yu, JI Hua-yuan, WEI Qi-peng, HUANG Jiang-nan, XIE Jin-fang
[Abstract](114) [FullText HTML](58) [PDF 621KB](0)
Abstract:
  Objective  In order to make use of the excellent characteristics of Ji'an Red duck, we crossbred the duck to improve the production performance, and provide a certain basis for the future industrial production of Ji'an Red duck.  Method  In this study, we used Ji'an Red duck (♀) and white Kaiya duck (♂) to grading crossing and fix them, and measured the growth performance and slaughter performance of red and white feather populations of different hybrid progenies.  Result  The plumage color of ducks in the F1 generation was divided into red feather and white feather (2: 1), and that of ducks in the F2 generation was divided into mixed-color feather, red feather and white feather (1: 1.2: 1). The red feather ducks and white feather ducks of F2 generation were cross fixed respectively, and there was no feather color separation in the offspring (F2×F2 generation). The body weight of red feather duck from the F2 generation and F2×F2 generation in the early growth stage (21 days old) was significantly higher than that of F1 generation (P<0.01). In addition, the slaughter performance of hybrid offspring was also improved. The carcass percentage, breast muscle percentage, lean meat rate of F2 generation red feather ducks and the live weight, carcass weight, eviscerating percentage of F2 generation red feather female ducks were significantly or extremely significantly higher than those of F1 generation (P<0.05 or P<0.01), the carcass percentage, eviscerated percentage of red feather ducks, the half-eviscerated percentage of red feather female ducks and the abdominal fat rate of red feather male ducks in the F2×F2 generation were significantly or extremely significantly higher than those of F1 generation (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and the half-eviscerated percentage of all red feather ducks and the carcass percentage, eviscerated percentage and abdominal fat percentage of red feather male ducks in the F2×F2 generation were significantly or extremely significantly higher than that of red feather ducks in the F2 generation (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The breast muscle percentage, lean meat rate of all white feather ducks and the body weight, carcass weight of white feather female duck in the F2 generation were significantly or extremely significantly higher than those of F1 generation white feather duck (P<0.05 or P<0.01), The carcass percentage, eviscerated percentage and breast muscle percentage of F2×F2 white feather ducks were significantly or extremely significantly higher than those of F1 generation (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and the carcass percentage, eviscerated percentage of all white feather ducks and the half-eviscerated percentage of white feather female duck in F2×F2 generation were extremely significantly higher than those of white feather duck in F2 generation (P<0.01).  Conclusion  The early growth rate and slaughter performance of Ji'an red feather duck were significantly improved by introducing the blood relationship of white Kaiya duck.
Difference analysis on the growth and development, fruit quality and yield of different pear varieties under rain-shelter cultivation
ZENG Shao-min, HUANG Xin-zhong, CHEN Xiao-ming
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](110) [FullText HTML](45) [PDF 612KB](2)
Abstract:
  Objective  In order to strengthen the pertinence of extension and application of rain-shelter cultivation in the southern hot and humid pear producing areas, the growth and development, fruit quality and yield of different types of pear varieties were studied under rain-shelter cultivation.  Method  The growth and development indicators of elongated shoots, leaves and flower buds, as well as phenology, fruit quality and yields of different pear varieties between rain-shelter and open-field cultivation were measured and comparatively analyzed through field tracking and fixed observation  Result  Compared with the pear trees under open field cultivation, the test trees had longer fruit development and vegetative period, higher fruit setting rates of inflorescence and single flower, weaker shoots and leaves, better fruit appearance quality, lower fruit hardness, higher total sugar content and lower total acid content. Under rain-shelter cultivation, the three early-maturing varieties prone to early-defoliation had significant or extremely significant increase in flower bud ratio and weight, yield per plant, and weight per fruit, while variety ‘Cuiyu’ and ‘Cuiguan’ had also significant increase in soluble solid content. The two mid-maturing varieties less prone to early-defoliation had significant or extremely significant decrease in flower bud ratio and weight, and weight per fruit, while variety ‘Huanghua’ had 22.42% decrease in yield per plant and significant decrease in soluble solid content. The three green pear varieties had lower degree of fruit russet under rain-shelter, while variety ‘Cuiyu’ had extremely significant decrease in russet-sensitive fruit rate, russet-sensitive surface ratio and painted-face fruit rate.  Conclusion  The early-maturing varieties that were susceptible to early-defoliation and fruit russet-resistance were suitable for perennial film-covering and rain-shelter cultivation. Fruit bagging measures should be taken for fruits of early-maturing varieties that are prone to early-defoliation and fruit russet under perennial rain-shelter cultivation. The mid-maturing varieties that were not prone to early-defoliation were suitable for open field cultivation. If the mid-maturing varieties were cultivated under rain-shelter, they should be covered with film in the early and middle stage of growth and development, and uncovered with film after fruit harvest.
Influence of long-term biogas slurry fertilization on fungal community diversity in rhizosphere soil of areca taro
LIU Lan-ying, HUANG Wei, LV Xin, HE Xiao-yun, CHEN Li-hua, LI Yue-ren
[Abstract](40) [FullText HTML](36) [PDF 1017KB](2)
Abstract:
  Objective  This study was conducted to explore the effect of biogas slurry fertilizer application on fungal community diversity in rhizosphere soil of areca taro, and provide a theoretical basis for better utilization of biogas slurry.  Method  The soil of areca taro planting plots with continuous application of biogas slurry for 6 years was collected, and the soil with no application of biogas slurry was also collected as the control group. Based on Illumina Miseq high-throughput sequencing platform, the relationship between the soil fungal diversity, community composition, and soil physicochemical characteristics were analyzed.  Result  Compared with the control, the contents of soil organic matter, alkaline nitrogen and available potassium were increased obviously in the soil with continuous application of biogas slurry for 6 years. The number of soil fungal species OTUs, the richness and diversity indexs of soil fungal community were also increased significantly. In the phylum level, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Mortierellomycota, Glomeromycota and others were identified, among which Ascomycota was the most abundant in the soil. After continuous application of biogas slurry for 6 years, the relative abundance of Mortierellomycota and Mortierellomycetes were increased significantly, while the relative abundance of Glomeromycota and Glomeromycetes were decreased significantly. Compared with the control, the dominant fungi in the genus level were also changed obviously. Reundancy analysis showed that the main soil factor causing the change of fungal community diversity were alkaline nitrogen, available potassium and organic matter.  Conclusion  Long-term biogas slurry fertilization cause changes in soil microenvironment, and then lead to changes in community composition and diversity of soil fungi.
c
2020, 35(7): 0-0.  
[Abstract](93) [FullText HTML](58) [PDF 290KB](7)
Abstract:
Crop Science
Light Response Model and Photosynthetic Parameters of Colored Potatoes
XU Guochun, LUO Wenbin, LI Huawei, XU Yongqing, JI Rongchang, LI Guoliang, LIN Zhaomiao, QIU Sixin, TANG Hao
2020, 35(7): 691-698.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.07.001
[Abstract](207) [FullText HTML](152) [PDF 879KB](11)
Abstract:
  Objective   Light responses of potato plants bearing colored tubers were studied.   Method   Gas exchanges of potato leaves on 2 common varieties of yellow and white tubers and 4 of different colored tubers were determined. Collected data were fitted to the simulation models of rectangular hyperbola (RH), non-rectangular hyperbola (NRH), modified rectangular hyperbolic (MRH), and exponential function (EM). Photosynthetic parameters including maximum photosynthetic rate (Pn-max), light saturation point (LSP), light compensation point (LCP), dark respiration rate (Rd), and apparent quantum yield (AQY) on the plants were analyzed.   Result  (1) All 4 models could adequately simulate the responses under low light, and RH, NRH, and EM failed to predict on photoinhibition. On the other hand, MRH accurately covered the entire light spectrum with a correlation coefficient (R2) greater than 0.99, as well as the smallest root mean square error and mean absolute error, among all models. (2) Pn-max of the colored potatoes were lower than those of the common varieties. They were 6.7%–34.2% lower than that of Favorita and 14.8%–40.0% than that of Minshu 1. Aside from Hongmei, the other 3 colored potatoes showed LSP below 1 000 μmol·m−2·s−1, which was much less than those of the common varieties. No significant difference on the utilization under low light by the two categories of potatoes was observed. (3) Among the 4 colored varieties, Hongmei had the highest Pn-max and LSP, but lowest on the ability to use low light, while Mincaishu 3 exhibited the highest low light utilization. (4) The light response processes of stomatal conductance (Gs) and transpiration rate (Tr) were similar to that of net photosynthetic rate (Pn). They rose rapidly as the light intensity increased and then leveled off or declined. In contrast, the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) showed a sharp decline before stabilization.   Conclusion  The Pn-max and LSP of potato varieties that bore colored tubers were significantly lower than those of the common varieties indicating a lower photosynthetic potential and apparent photoinhibition. The information might lead to improved breeding and cultivation practices of colored potatoes.
Effect of Sodium Azide-induced Mutagenesis on Low-temperature Tolerance of Soybean Germplasms
TIAN Xin, ZHONG Cheng, LI Xingyuan
2020, 35(7): 699-708.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.07.002
[Abstract](140) [FullText HTML](89) [PDF 1003KB](10)
Abstract:
  Objective  By immersing buds in varied concentrations of sodium azide solutions to induce mutagenesis in vitro on 3 soybean germplasms, optimized induction conditions were determined based on the effect on the low-temp tolerance of the mutants under stress.  Methods  Young buds of Changshutedawang (CSTDW), Taiwan 292, and Jianhe soybean germplasms were immersed in sodium azide solutions of different concentrations for the in vitro mutagenesis induction. After the optimized induction treatment (immersing buds at 0.8mmol sodium azide/L for 48h), the plants were subjected to low-temp stress at 4 ℃ for 4d prior to the physio-biochemical determinations.  Results  The mortality rate of the treated plants was only slightly higher than the median lethal dose(LD50). Under the low-temp stress, the contents of osmosis regulating substance and photosynthetic pigment in the mutant plants were higher than those in control. At room temperature, the increases on the germplasm was in the order of Taiwan 292>CSTDW>Jianhe, and the SOD and CAT in Taiwan 292 and Jianhe were significantly increased. Under low temperature, the antioxidant capacities differed among the germplasms. Overall, Jianhe was higher than CSTDW and followed by Taiwan 292. Specifically, SOD and POD activity increased in Jianhe, POD increased in CSTDW, and SOD and POD slightly increased and CAT decreased in Taiwan 292. Compared to control, Taiwan 292 had the greatest antioxidant activities showing an increased POD and slightly decreased SOD activity, CSTDW was next in line with no significant change, and Jianhe had the least with decreased activities on both SOD and POD. The MDA contents of CSTDW and Taiwan 292 increased initially followed by a decline, while Jianhe maintained an increasing trend. The overall increased levels ranked Taiwan 292> CSTDW> Jianhe.   Conclusion   The induced mutagenesis increased the osmosis regulating substance and photosynthetic pigment contents in the 3 soybean germplasms. The improvement on low-temp tolerance was higher for CSTDW and Taiwan 292 but lower for the local Jianhe soybean. After mutagenesis and low-temp treatment, Taiwan 292 performed well with a heightened antioxidant capacity. On the other hand, Jianhe changed significantly on the enzymatic activity, the condition was favorable for the plants at room temperature but disadvantageous at low temperatures. In all, the low-temp tolerance of the soybean germplasms generated by sodium azide-induced mutagenesis were found to be Taiwan 292>CSTDW>Jianhe.
Breeding a New Variety of Dendrobium officinale, Fuhu 1
ZHANG Zhiyong, ZHOU Meiling, LIANG Jinping, HUANG Pingping, ZHANG Chuan
2020, 35(7): 709-716.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.07.003
[Abstract](172) [FullText HTML](82) [PDF 1035KB](6)
Abstract:
  Objective  A new high-quality, high-yield Dendrobium officinale variety suitable for cultivation in Fujian was bred.   Method  The capsules of D. officinale were obtained from natural pollination of L-2, a wild species found at Guanzhaishan in Liancheng County. From the offspring seedlings, LF-9 with the most desirable agronomic traits, growth potential, and stem yield was selected and rapidly propagated in tissue culture.   Result  After years of experimental cultivations at various localities, LF-9 excelled L-2 (CK) in quality evaluation, by microstructure observation, and with molecular identification. It was named Fuhu 1 and rendered in two-year regional tests an average fresh stem yield of 4,77 7.5 kg·hm-2, which was 17.7% higher than that of CK. At harvest, merely 0.9% of the plants were infected by the blight disease. The infection rate was 50.0% lower than that of CK. For the black spot disease, the occurrence rate was 7.3%, which was 29.8% lower that of CK. On the contents of functional ingredients, Fuhu 1 contained 51.8% polysaccharides, i.e., 8.8% higher than CK, and 15.3% alcohol soluble, i.e., 82.1% higher than CK.   Conclusion  D. officinale var. Fuhu 1 was certified by the Committee of Identifying Variety in Fujian Province in 2016 (Fujian Medicine No. 2016001). It was a superior variety with highly desirable agronomic properties including high yield, high quality, and strong disease resistance and considered a promising new D. officinale for commercial cultivation in Fujian.
Horticultural Science
Pectin Metabolism and Related Gene Expressions during Loquat Fruit Development
GAO Huanhuan, NIU Xianqian, YANG Guiping, GUO Ao, CHEN Xu, ZHENG Guo-hua
2020, 35(7): 717-724.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.07.004
[Abstract](169) [FullText HTML](92) [PDF 1209KB](7)
Abstract:
  Objective  Pectin metabolism and related gene expressions during the fruit developments of red-flesh and white-flesh loquats were studied to decipher the mechanism associated with the changes on pectin and difference on pulp texture.   Method  Loquat varieties bearing fruits with distinctive textural characteristics, namely, the red-fresh Donghuzao and Zaozhong 6 and the white-flesh Guifei and Baili, were used for the study. Contents of 3 forms of pectin, activities of related enzymes, and relative expressions of genes related to pectin methyl-esterase (PME), polygalacturonase (PG), pectate lyase (PL), and β-galactosidase (β-Gal) in the fruits at development stages were determined.  Result  During the late stage of fruit development, the red-flesh loquats had a significantly lower water soluble pectin (WSP) content than the white-flesh fruits. But no significant difference on either ionic soluble pectin (ISP) or covalent soluble pectin (CSP) was observed. As the fruit was ripening and turning soft, the PME activity increased initially, then declined. Meanwhile, the activities of PG and β-Gal rose continuously and were significantly higher in the white-flesh loquats than in the red-flesh fruits near the end. Approaching the final ripening process, the expressions of PL, PG, and β-Gal in the white-flesh fruits were all significantly higher than those in the red-flesh ones.   Conclusion  The pectin metabolism directly involved in the ripening and softening process of loquat fruits. The WSP content as well as PG and β-Gal activities physiologically governed the texture of loquat pulp. The concerted effect of the pectin degradation and the related genes determined the softening of loquat fruits. Among the genes, PL, PG, and β-Gal might be the key genes that differentiated the texture of red-flesh and white-flesh loquats.
Selection and Sequence Alignment of PCR Primers for Identifying Zizhi Strain
ZHONG Liyi, CHEN Tiqiang, LIU Xinrui, YIN Zhenghe, YNAG Chi
2020, 35(7): 725-730.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.07.005
[Abstract](168) [FullText HTML](86) [PDF 1141KB](1)
Abstract:
  Objective  The molecular markers of the cultivated strain of Ganoderma sinense, Zizhi S2 (aka Wu-Zhi No. 2), recently popularized in Fujian and surrounding provinces were studied to facilitate the authentication of the medicinal fungus.   Method   Relevant primers of Zizhi S2 showing clear and stable bands and polymorphism were screened using PCR. Phylogenetic tree of UPMGA clustering analysis on the verified authentic cultivars was constructed to determine their relationship by genetic distance as well as antagonistic reaction. Subsequently, sequences of the selected primers were blasted on the genome of Zizhi S2 to validate the methodology.   Result  There were 2 RAPD-PCR and 3 ISSR-PCR primers found to clearly and stably amplify the specific or polymorphic bands. However, the sites and numbers on the scaffolds of the Zizhi S2 genome that matched the sequences of the 5 primers were not same.   Conclusion   It was confirmed that three primers(ISSR13, S1326, and S1506)could be effectively used for identification of Zizhi cultivated strains based on sequences alignment with the genome of G. sinense strain Zizhi S2.
Inheritability of Heat Tolerance in Bitter Gourd at Seeding Stage
CHEN Zhongshan, XU Duanxiang, DU Wenli, XU Tongwei, LIN Bixing, GAO Shan
2020, 35(7): 731-738.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.07.006
[Abstract](165) [FullText HTML](98) [PDF 635KB](3)
Abstract:
  Objective  A genetic inheritance analysis on the heat tolerance of bitter gourd at seedling stage was conducted for breeding and molecular biology studies.   Method  Heat tolerance of 20 inbred lines of bitter gourd at seedling stage was evaluated. Six generations (i.e., P1, P2, F1, F2, B1, and B2) of the cultivars were produced by hybridization and backcrossing between the heat-tolerant 0974 and the heat-sensitive 1590. From them, inheritability on heat tolerance of the plants was analyzed using a software for segregation analysis on quantitative traits.   Result  In accordance to the B-1 model, the inheritance of the trait in bitter gourd at seedling stage appeared to be controlled by two major additive-dominance-epistasis pairs of genes. The additive effects by the two major gene pairs were −0.846 8 and −0.503 3, and the dominance effects 0.099 2 and −0.451 7; while the epistatic effect was mainly governed by dominant-dominant interaction. The rates of the inheritance in the B1, B2, and F2 generations were 65.71%, 61.2%, and 71.58%, respectively.  Conclusion   For effective bitter gourd breeding, the material segregation should be held in early generations, and the environmental conditions strictly controlled during the entire process to ensure consistent genetic transfer.
Animal Science
A TaqMan RT-PCR Method for Detecting Porcine Circovirus 3
CHEN Rujing, WU Xuemin, CHEN Qiuyong, CHE Yongliang, WANG Longbai, YAN Shan, ZHOU Lunjiang
2020, 35(7): 739-745.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.07.007
[Abstract](139) [FullText HTML](85) [PDF 863KB](10)
Abstract:
  Objective  A TaqMan RT-PCR method was established for detecting porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3) infection in swine.   Method  Specific primers and probe were designed by Oligo 7 software targeting the Rep gene after genetic comparison.   Result  The established TaqMan RT-PCR method could detect 42.2 copies·uL−1 with no positive signal on common porcine infectious diseases indicating high specificity of the methodology. On the constructed positive plasmids, the coefficients of variation for the intra- and inter-assays were less than 1.48% showing a high detection reproducibility. From the 193 clinical specimens collected in Fujian from 2014 to 2018, the newly developed method showed a high prevalence of PCV3 at 65.80% and high co-infection with PCV2 at 52.85%.   Conclusion  The established TaqMan RT-PCR method was made available for studying the function of Rep in PCV3.
Immunization Effects of Inactivated NDV-IBDV Combination Vaccine and Live IBD Vaccine on Layer Chicks
QU Guishu, HUANG Ruiling, XING Dong, PENG Yaoshun, ZHUANG Xunuo, XU Lihui, JIANG Xinghua, WANG Quanxi
2020, 35(7): 746-752.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.07.008
[Abstract](173) [FullText HTML](98) [PDF 956KB](7)
Abstract:
  Objective   Immunization effects of the inactivated NDV-IBDV combination vaccine and the attenuated live IBDV vaccine on layer chicks were compared.   Method   One-hundred-twenty one-day-old commercial layer chicks were randomly divided into 3 groups. In the immunized groups, the 7-d-old chicks were subcutaneously injected 0.3 mL of live IBD vaccine or inactivated NDV-IBDV combination vaccine in the neck, while those in the control group 0.3 mL of physiological saline. During the 42 d of testing, serum samples were collected every 7 d for IBDV antibody, as well as bursal and spleen samples for total RNA extraction to determine the mRNA expressions of CD4+, CD8+, and IL-6. A IBDV challenge test was performed on the fowls at a 7 d interval for bursa and spleen lesions by dissection in 72h to calculate protection rate of the vaccinations.   Result  The IBDV antibody in the NDV-IBDV-vaccinated chicks was significantly more than that in the IBD-vaccinated or control counterparts. With the immunization by the inactivated NDV-IBDV vaccine, the chicks were effectively protected from the IBDV virulent infection, and the mRNA expressions of CD4+, CD8+, and IL-6 in their bursas and spleens significantly higher than those of the birds in either the IBD-vaccinated or the control groups.   Conclusion  By combining NDV and IBDV vaccines for the immunization on 7-d-old commercial layer chicks, the disease-prevention effect was better than using IBD vaccine alone.
Resources and Environmental Science
Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Organic Fertilizer on Key Microbial Carbon-cycle Genes in Rhizosphere Soil at Sweet Corn Field
YUAN Yinlong, SUN Jie, XU Ruyu, ZUO Mingxue, GU Wenjie, LU Yusheng, XIE Kaizhi, XU Peizhi
2020, 35(7): 753-763.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.07.009
[Abstract](213) [FullText HTML](107) [PDF 934KB](7)
Abstract:
  Objective   Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and organic fertilizer applied in sweet corn field on the microbial genes relating to the carbon (C) cycling in the rhizosphere was studied to decipher the biological mechanism and the soil C-transformation.  Method   Seven treatments with triplicates each were applied on the sweet corn fields including (1) no N fertilizer (CK), (2) optimized fertilization (OF), (3) organic N fertilizer to replace 10% of chemical N fertilizer (ORF10), (4) organic N fertilizer to replace 20% of chemical N fertilizer (ORF20), (5) ORF10 with added Glomus versiforme (ORF10+AMF), (6) ORF20 with added G. versiforme (ORF20+AMF), and (7) CK with added G. versiforme (CK+AMF). Genes related to C-cycling in the treated rhizosphere soils were analyzed using GeoChip 5.0 technology.   Result  Addition of AMF in fertilizing the sweet corn plants significantly increased the yield. By adding AMF to CK, ORF10, and ORF20, the treatments increased the number of fresh buds on the plants by 32.6%, 8.6%, and 8.9%, respectively. The results of gene sequencing on the soil samples showed that the AMF/organic fertilizer combinations significantly altered the structure of the microbial C-cycle genes. The signal strength of key functional genes associated with C-cycling, such as C-decomposition, C-fixation, and methane metabolism, were generally stronger under CK+AMF and ORF20+AMF than the other treatments. According to the redundancy analysis, the respiration, total nitrogen, pH, total potassium, organic matter, available phosphorus, and total phosphorus in rhizosphere soil were the major environmental factors affecting the functions of the C-cycle-related genes.  Conclusion  The application of organic fertilizer and G. versiforme in sweet corn field significantly increased the fresh bud count on the plants. It changed the structure of the microbial C-cycle genes in rhizosphere soil positively affecting the decomposition and fixation of C as well as the methane metabolism of the ecosystem.
Functional Microorganisms in Tomato Stalks/Maize Straws Co-compost Unveiled by Integrated Meta-omics
ZHU Yi, LI Junliang, JIAO Bo, ZHU Qianqian, ZHANG Xiaomei
2020, 35(7): 764-772.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.07.010
[Abstract](120) [FullText HTML](81) [PDF 998KB](4)
Abstract:
  Objective  The integrated meta-omics was applied to reveal the functional microorganisms in the tomato stalks/maize straws compost.   Method  Sampling from the pile of a compost of tomato stalks and maize straws in the ratio of 3:1 (m: m) at the height of 20–50 cm was carried out once every week for lignocellulosic enzyme assay. When a peak enzymatic activity appeared, specimens were collected and the integrated meta-omic analysis that combined high-throughput pyrosequencing and Orbitrap studies was conducted.  Result  The greatest population of fungi in the compost belonged to the phylum Ascomycota, in which, Thermomyces was the most abundant accounting for 70.5%. Thermomyces is known to secret endo-1,4-β-xylanase that degrades hemicellulose in biomass. Of the total bacteria population, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes phyla made up 87.0%, and the two genera of Actinobacteria, Thermobifida and Saccharomonospora, accounted for 16.5% and 1.36%, respectively. Thermobifida is capable of degrading cellulose with its 4 endoglucanases and 3 cellobiohydrolases. It also secrets enzymes associated with hemicellulose and pectate degradation. Saccharomonospora produces a β-xylanase, 2 serine proteases and 2 trypsins involved in the decomposition of hemicelluloses and proteins. Idiomarina was the major genus of Proteobacteria found in the compost with a relative abundance of 15.6%. It involves in protein degradation. Although low in abundance (merely 1.23%), Planifilum of Firmicutes phylum plays an import role in degrading hemicelluloses.  Conclusion  The integrated meta-omics that combined pyrosequencing and Orbitrap analysis provided a new tool for studying the community structure and functions of the microorganisms in a complex habitat such as a compost of different bio-materials. With the information obtained, ways to accelerate the composting process could be explored.
Correlation between AM Fungal Diversity and Rhizosphere Fertility at Avocado Fields
Huang Ting, Wang Mingyuan, Qin Ziyi, Liu Xinwei, Xu Zhizhou, Sun Yue, Liu Zixuan, Dong Tao
2020, 35(7): 773-780.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.07.011
[Abstract](191) [FullText HTML](94) [PDF 732KB](8)
Abstract:
  Objective   Correlation between the diversity of AM fungal community and the fertility of rhizosphere soil of avocado orchards in Guangxi, Yunnan, and Guangdong provinces was studied.   Method   Spores of AM fungi collected from the field samples were isolated by wet screening and identified morphologically. The fungal diversity and nutrient contents in the soil specimens were determined.   Result  Thirty-three species from 3 genera of AM fungi were isolated and identified. They included 22 species of Glomus, 7 of Acaulospora, and 4 of Scutellospora. Among them, G. manihotis, A. rehmii, S. rubra, and S. reticulate were dominate species, and G. claroideum, G. luteum, G. reticulatum, G. coronatum, G. verruculosum, A. scrobiculata, and S. verrucose were commonly found in all samples. The Sorenson similarity coefficients on the AM fungi in the rhizosphere soils varied between 0.29 and 0.92 and were generally extremely high or high. The species richness and Shannon-Wiener index of the fungal community significantly inversely correlated with the available phosphorus in soil.  Conclusion  The AM fungi in avocado rhizosphere soil were highly diverse with Glomus being the predominant species, and the population inversely correlated to the phosphorus content in soil.
Screening and Identifying Cellulase-producing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens
HE Shenhong, CHENG Fangjun, LUO Gan, ZHANG Geng, DU Yanan, KANG Xiamei, WANG Xiaohan, ZHAO Ziliang, REN Shaoke, GUO Jianhua
2020, 35(7): 781-787.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.07.012
[Abstract](147) [FullText HTML](110) [PDF 747KB](7)
Abstract:
  Objective   To screen and isolate a cellulase-producing microbe for efficient, rapid and natural composting cattle waste.   Method  At 3 cow manure composting plants in the Three Gorges Reservoir area in Chongqing, samples for microbial analysis were collected. The agar dilution method was applied to isolate bacillus strains from the compost specimens. Cellulase activity of the strains was determined for the screening by the hydrolytic circle method and the CMC enzyme saccharification method. Selected strains were morphologically examined and further identified by physiological, biochemical, and molecular biological methods. Based on 16S rRNA sequence, phylogenetic tree of the final selection was constructed using the molecular biological software MEGA6.0 for confirmation.   Result  Out of 57 isolates from the compost specimens, 10 strains showed varying degrees of cellulase activity. Among them, X10 had the highest activity at 31.9 U·mL−1 and was identified on the 16S rRNA phylogenetic tree to be Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.   Conclusion  X10 was a species of B. amyloliquefaciens that was highly productive in secreting cellulase to enhance the degradation of cow manure in compost.
Food Science
Phenols and Biological Activity of Chewable Plum Tablets
TANG Baosha, LAI Pufu, LI Yibin, WU Li, WENG Minjie, ZHENG Hengguang
2020, 35(7): 788-794.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.07.013
[Abstract](144) [FullText HTML](86) [PDF 843KB](7)
Abstract:
  Objective   A chewable tablet product made with plum ingredients was prepared and its phenol content, antioxidant properties, and hypouricemic effect analyzed.   Method  Chewable tablets were prepared with substances and extract from Furong plums (Prunus sallcina Lindi. cv. Furong). Product formula was refined to achieve desired sensory quality judged by a panel and phenolic content determined by HPLC. Antioxidant activity of the tablets was represented by in vitro scavenging abilities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl free radicals, and hypouricemic effect determined by xanthine oxidase-xanthine reaction system.  Result  The chewable tablets were prepared with 40% of plum powder, 20% of plum polyphenols powder, 20% of wheat bran powder cultivated by edible fungi, 10% of microcrystalline cellulose, and 10% of maltodextrin. The tablets were purplish red in color, smooth and clean without cracks or rough edges in shape, lightly sweet and sour in taste, and solid and chewy in texture. The phenols in them included epicatechin, proanthocyanidins, catechins, proanthocyanidins B, and anthocyanins. The scavenging abilities on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals were not significantly different from those of Vc, with IC50 of 0.07 mg·mL−1 on DPPH and 0.79 mg·mL−1 on hydroxyl radicals. The IC50 on inhibiting xanthine oxidase was 258.96 μg·mL−1.   Conclusion   The prepared chewable plum tablets contained a variety of phenols that exhibited desirable in vitro antioxidant and hypouricemic effects and could be further developed into a commercial functional food product.
Hypoglycemic Effect of Jaboticaba Leaf on Hyperglycemic Mice
LIN Baomei, QIU Shanlian, ZHANG Shuhe, ZHANG Shuai, HONG Jia-min, ZHANG Shao-ping, ZHENG Kaibin
2020, 35(7): 795-800.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.07.014
[Abstract](142) [FullText HTML](87) [PDF 576KB](4)
Abstract:
  Objective   Hypoglycemic effect of jaboticaba leaf was studied on diabetic mice artificially induced by streptozotocin (STZ) injection.   Method  Mice were intravenously injected with STZ and randomly divided into hyperglycemic control and 4 treatment groups. Mice in the treatment groups were each fed with a diet that included 1%, 2%, 4% or 8% of jaboticaba leaves. In addition, another control group of healthy mice was included for comparison. During the 30 d test at intervals after administration, fasting blood glucose (FBG) of each group was measured to monitor the changes over time. Glucose tolerance and serum lipid indicators including triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) of each animal were determined at end of the feeding test.  Result  Jaboticaba leaves exhibited significant hypoglycemic effect on the hyperglycemic mice. The effect increased with increasing dosage of jaboticaba leaves. Compared with the mice in the hyperglycemic control group, the treatment mice fed with 8% jaboticaba leaves significantly decreased on FBG (P<0.01); those fed with 4% and 8% jaboticaba leaves significantly improved on glucose tolerance (P<0.01); those in all treatment groups elevated on HDL-C (P<0.01)and decreased on serum TG (P<0.05).  Conclusion  When jaboticaba leaves were added to the feed at 4% or 8% level, significant hypoglycemic effect as well as improved lipid metabolism were observed on the STZ-induced hyperglycemic mice.
Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides in Wuyi Mingcong Tea Germplasms
SHI Yutao, ZHENG Shulin, WU Weiwei, LUO Shengcai, CHEN Xiating, WANG Feiquan, LI Yuanhua, ZHANG Bo
2020, 35(7): 801-810.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.07.015
[Abstract](153) [FullText HTML](91) [PDF 958KB](9)
Abstract:
  Objective  Composition and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides (TPS) in Wuyi Mingcong tea germplasms from plantations at Mt. Wuyi were determined for better utilization of the existing resource and new variety breeding.   Method  Samples of 31 Wuyi Mingcong tea germplasms were collected for polysaccharides extraction. The extraction rate and contents of neutral sugar, uronic acid, protein and tea polyphenol were determined. Methods of D-deoxyribose-iron system and DPPH assay were adopted to evaluate the scavenging activities on DPPH· and hydroxyl (·OH) free radicals. A clustered heatmap and subordinate function method were employed to characterize and classify the various TPS.   Result  The TPS extraction rates on the tea germplasm samples ranged from 1.73% to 3.39%. The extracts contained 25.75-67.21% neutral sugars, 11.10-22.57% uronic acid, 2.24-7.42% protein, 3.81-9.68% polyphenols. The average scavenging activity of TPS on DPPH· was 55.61%, ranging from 25.47% to 84.30%, and that on ·OH 54.20%, ranging from 34.98% to 78.38%. The coefficients of variation on 7 TPS traits ranged from 16.74% to 23.71% and on genetic diversity indices from 1.93 to 2.18. The hierarchical cluster and heatmap analyses showed that the contents of uronic acid, protein, and polyphenols significantly correlated with the free radical scavenging activities of the TPS extracts, but not between the extraction rate or neutral sugar and the antioxidant activity. The 31 germplasms could be divided into 3 classes. The top 5 germplasms on the average subordinate function value were Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze cv. Jiulonglan, cv. Yuchan, cv. Yudan, cv. Baijiguan, and cv. Hongjiguan.   Conclusion  The composition and antioxidant activity of TPS in the 31 Wuyi Mingcong teas varied significantly. The uronic acid, protein, and polyphenols in TPS exerted significant effect on its antioxidant activity. TPS in Jiulonglan, Yuchan, Yudan, Baijiguan, and Hongjiguan appeared to be higher on antioxidant activity among the germplasms. These 5 varieties could be applied for breeding new varieties to make oolong teas for the health food market.
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