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Design and implementation of agricultural technology service system based on social media platform and media convergence technology
Zhao Jian, QIU Rong-zhou, CHI Mei-xiang, Gao Xiao-dan, WENG Qi-yong
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](29) [FullText HTML](30) [PDF 1176KB](2)
Abstract:
  Objective  Innovation is an important support for the overall revitalization of rural, in order to broaden the channels for farmers to access agricultural technology information resources, improve the efficiency of science and technology commissioners, and increase the utilization rate of agricultural information resources. According the characteristics of multimedia resources and diversified transmission channels in the media environment, we design a set of agricultural technology service systems that integrate information push, video training and interactive consultation, at last provide multiple integration services way such as WeChat public number and small program.  Methods  through information resource integration, process optimization design and data interface development, a media distribution platform for agricultural science and technology information service was established, and an agricultural science and technology service application system based on WeChat platform was developed to realize information service functions such as live micro-video, expert Q&A, and information query, and to popularize and apply them.  Results  service-oriented (SOA) data interface can provide platform fusion information resource access service; The application of official account and mini program can meet the requirements of interactive, multimedia and mobile agricultural information services. Through the WeChat platform as the user access point, the download and installation process are reduced and the user's willingness to use is effectively improved. WeChat dialogue, friend forwarding and other data distribution methods account for 71.51% of the information resource visits, effectively improving the transmission and utilization efficiency of agricultural information resources.  Conclusion  The "Huinongxin" agricultural technology service system developed by the application of media technology and WeChat platform can meet the demand of agricultural technical services for information resources and application functions, improve the efficiency of agricultural technology dissemination, reduce the difficulty of use and training costs, this system is also an efficient tool for science and technology commissioners to carry out technical services for rural agricultural users. The application prospects are extensive.
Effect of carbonization temperature and time on the structural properties of different waste mushroom biochars
LI SI-wei, Sarfraz Rubab, YANG Wen-hao, MAO Yan-ling, ZHOU Bi-qing, XING Shi-he
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](4) [FullText HTML](3) [PDF 0KB](0)
Abstract:
  Objective  The surface properties of biochar are closely related to the functional groups on the surface. At present, there are few studies on the surface properties of waste mushroom biochars under different pyrolysis conditions. In this paper, biochars were derived from the mushroom waste of Hypsizygus marmoreus mushroom, Pleurotus geesteranus and Tremella fuciformis under oxygen-limited pyrolysis method at different temperatures (400℃, 500℃, 600℃, and 700℃) and different times (1.5h, 2h, 2.5h and 3h). In order to investigate the effects of different preparation conditions on the biochar characteristics of different waste mushroom the structural properties of different mushroom waste biochars were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.  Result  With the increased pyrolysis temperature and time, the relative contents of C=O and C-N in the protein, C-O-C in cellulose and C-H functional groups in the benzene ring decreased, while, the relative contents of C-C functional groups in the benzene ring increased and reached the maximum at 700℃ for 3 h. Under the same pyrolysis conditions, the absorption peak of the biochar oxygen functional group of the Hypsizygus marmoreus mushroom was the strongest, while, it was the weakest for Pleurotus geesteranus biochar . On the other hand, the C-C absorption peak of C-C functional groups in the benzene ring is the strongest, while, Tremella biochar is the weakest.  Conclusion  With the increased pyrolysis temperatures and times, organic substances such as proteins, polysaccharides and fatty acids in biochar were gradually decomposed, alkyl groups were diminished , and aromatic structures were gradually formed, The biochar structure is the most stable at 700℃ for 3 h. Among the three kinds of biochar, the adsorption capacity of the biochar of the Hypsizygus marmoreus mushroom may be the strongest for heavy metals or organic pollutants. The effect of carbon sequestration on Pleurotus geesteranus biochar may be the best after application to the soil.
Application of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Liquid Fertilizer on Tea
LIN Bin, HUANG Jun-qing, GUAN Xue-fang, ZHENG Yan, XUN Qing-xian, WANG qi, QIAN Lei, ZHENG Yi, ZHANG Cheng-xin, TANG Tong-hua, ZHAO Men-tao
[Abstract](2) [FullText HTML](1) [PDF 629KB](0)
Abstract:
  Objective  To investigate the effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens liquid fertilizer W208YF on the yield, quality of tea "Tieguanyin" and its garden soil index.  Methods  The field plot experiment was conducted with two groups: the control group (CK) and the test group (W208YF). The W208YF group was treated with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens liquid fertilizer W208YF under the concentration of 4.0×106 cfu/ml with the dose of 1500 L/acre for 2 times. The CK group was given the same dose of clean water for the same times. When the tea was harvested, the tea yield and quality and the soil fertility and microbial diversity of the tea plantation were determined.  Results  The yield, water extract content and free amino acid content of tea in W208YF group were significantly increased as compared with the CK group, which were increased by 11.1%, 10.6% and 8.1%, respectively, while the caffeine content of tea in W208YF group was significantly decreased by 24.3% as compared with the CK group. The soil fertility (total nitrogen content, alkali nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium, organic matter and humic acid) and microbial diversity index (Shannon, Simpson index and β diversity) of the tea garden in W208YF group were all significantly improved when compared with those of the CK group.  Conclusion  Application of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens liquid fertilizer W208YF could significantly improve tea yield and quality, as well as the fertility and microbial community diversity of soil in the tea garden.
Effects of Brief Exposure to High Temperature on Survival and Reproduction of Assara inouei Yamanaka Adults
HE Chao, SHEN Deng-rong, BAI Li-xue, YIN Li-hong, ZHANG Rui, YUAN Sheng-yong, TIAN Xue-jun
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](2) [FullText HTML](2) [PDF 0KB](0)
Abstract:
  Objective  The effects of brief exposure to high temperature on survival and reproduction of Assara inouei adults was studied, and the thermal adaptation of adult at high temperature was determined, which provided a basis for population monitoring.  Method  The adults within 12 hours of emergence were exposed to the high temperature of 35, 38 and 41°C for 1, 2, 4, and 6 h, respectively, and then moved to a suitable temperature 25°C to continue feeding. The survival rate, longevity, fecundity and egg hatching rate of adult after brief exposure to high temperature were observed, 25°C served as control.  Result  Both temperature and duration of exposure to high temperature treatment in the adult stage significantly affected the survival and reproduction of Assara inouei adults. With the increase of temperature and the prolongation of exposure time, the survival rate of adults decreased gradually, the adult longevity and oviposition duration gradually shortened, the average number of eggs laid per female and the peak of female laid egg decreased gradually, and the egg hatching rate decreased. But there was no obvious change in the pre-oviposition period. After the adult were exposed to 35°C for 1 and 2 h, had no significant effects on adult survival rate, longevity, pre-oviposition period and egg hatching rate, but had significant effects on adult oviposition period and the average number of eggs laid per female, compared with the control. After the adult were exposed to 41°C for 4 and 6 h, their survival rate, longevity, pre-oviposition period, oviposition period, average number of eggs laid per female and egg hatching rate were the lowest than those of the control and adults were exposed to 35°C for 4 and 6 h.  Conclusion  The brief exposure to high temperature had harmful effects on survival and fecundity of Assara inouei adults, and the degree of influence became even serious with the rise of treatment temperature and extension of treatment time.
Breeding of early-maturing and fine quality indica rice CMS line, WutianA
WANG Tian-sheng, CHENG Hui-qing, XIE Wang-you, XIE Shao-he, CHEN Jin-wen, LI Kun-tai, CHEN Bing-fa, HUANG Rong-yu
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](2) [FullText HTML](1) [PDF 615KB](0)
Abstract:
  Objective  To develop fine quality and early-maturing CMS lines, thus lay a foundation for breeding new fine quality rice varieties.  Method  The F4 lines derived from Quan 5B/Tianfeng B was used as a paternal and crossed with CMS line Quan 5A in spring, 2007. After several times of backcrossing, observation and selection to develop new rice CMS line with fine quality and early-maturing.  Result  A fine quality and early-maturing CMS line Wutian A was developed and certified by Fujian crop variety evaluation committees in 2019 (20190047). It was characteristic of stable male sterility, 100% of plant sterility rate, 99.99% of pollen sterility rate, high outcrossing rate with 64.47% of stigma exsertion rate. Wutian A was aslo good at quality with 66.0% of head rice, 6.7 mm of grain length, 3.4 of length to width ratio, 4% of chalky rice, 0.6% of chalkiness degree, first grade of transparency, 7.0 of alkali spreading value, 50 mm of gel consistency, and 23.8% of amylose content. Among above indicators of grain quality, its head rice rate, percent of chalkiness degree, and transparency were accord with the standard of first class of edible indica rice according to the Quality of edible rice variety. Meanwhile, its amylose content and gel consistency were not good enough and needed to be improved basing on its fine character, such as fine quality, early maturing and so on. Wutian A was an early-maturing CMS line with 66-day of sowing to heading date, and same as Tianfeng A. It also showed fine combining ability. An elite hybrid combination WutianA/R713 was developed using Wutian A as female parent and R713 as male parent. Wutian You 713 was certified by Fujian crop variety evaluation committees in 2019 (20190035).  Conclusion  Wutian A was a new fine CMS line with stable male sterility, high out-crossing rate, good quality, early-maturing, and fine combining rate. It could be used to make up new fine quality and multiple-maturing types of three-line hybrid rice combinations.
Study on cultivation characters of lettuce for Leaf use in thin Film greenhouse by NFT
CHEN Yong-kuai, WANG Tao, HUANG Yu-yan, LAN Jie, LEI Jin-gui, WU Bao-yi, CHEN Hua
[Abstract](2) [FullText HTML](1) [PDF 641KB](0)
Abstract:
  Objective  The purpose of this paper is to identify the leaf lettuce variety suitable for planting in the Nutrient Film Technique(NFT) mode in the south thin-film greenhouse, and to provide the reliability basis for the extension of the lettuce germplasm resources and the introduction of new varieties in the province.  Methods  Thirteen species of leaf lettuce with excellent characters inside and outside the province were collected, and the morphological indexes of the tested varieties were studied by shallow liquid water culture technique in the film greenhouse of demonstration farm. The yield index and nutritional quality were comprehensively analyzed.  Results  In terms of morphology and yield index, the plant height was the best, as high as 29.23 cm, and the yield of Xiao ye ku ju, Greekn and Zi ya increased significantly by 48.69%, 57.75%, 63.45%, the yield per plant was 94.13 g, followed by Lv shen. In terms of nutritional quality, the anthocyanin and cellulose content of Lv mei gui in edible leaves were the highest, and the accumulation of nitrate nitrogen was the least. The content of photosynthetic pigment in edible leaves was the best in Lv shen, the content of ascorbic acid was the highest in Zi xia, and the content of soluble sugar was the best in You ya.   Conclusion  According to comprehensive analysis, Lv mei gui has higher yield and nutritional value, and is most suitable for cultivation under the NFT mode of southern thin film greenhouse.
Composition and Analysis of Fatty Acids in Muscles of 9 Wild Butterfish Species
ZHUANG Hai-qi, LIU Jiang-qin, ZHONG Yu, CUI Liao, LUO Hui
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](4) [FullText HTML](2) [PDF 781KB](0)
Abstract:
  Objective  The fatty acid contents in muscle of nine wild butterfish species were compared, and the correlations of the fatty acids compositions were analyzed, which could provide reference for development and utilization of wild butterfish.  Method  The muscle of butterfish was treated with 0.5% sulfuric acid-methanol solution. The fatty acid composition was determined by capillary gas chromatography. Correlation analysis and cluster analysis for fatty acid compositions were performed by IBM SPSS Statistics 20, a statistical software.  Result  The content of saturated fatty acid in muscle of 9 species of wild butterfish were in range of 34.52%-48.29%, monounsaturated fatty acid were 15.35%-35.91%, polyunsaturated fatty acid were 18.45%-37.26%. The content of C16 0 was stable and the highest. The correlation analysis showed that ∑MUFA was negatively correlated with ∑PUFA, and SFA had little correlation with ∑MUFA and ∑PUFA. The major fatty acids C20 4(6)(AA) and C22 6 (3)(DHA) were positively correlated with ω-6 and ω-3, respectively, while EPA had little correlation with other fatty acids. 9 species of butterfish can be divided into three groups by cluster analysis, among which 3 species of Pampus genera, Pampus chinensis, Pampus minor and Pampus argenteus, have similar fatty acid composition.  Conclusion  The contents of EPA+DHA and polyunsaturated fatty acids in 9 species of butterfish were high, which had high value in nutrition or medicine. The correlation analysis and cluster analysis of fatty acid composition can provide reference for the study of fatty acid metabolism and fish taxonomy of butterfish.
Polymorphism of IGFBP2 Gene and Its Association with Meat Quality Traits in Sujiang Pigs
TAO Yong, LU Jian-hao, REN Shan-mao
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](3) [FullText HTML](2) [PDF 703KB](0)
Abstract:
  Objective  In order to investigate the potential genetic variation of the insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP2) gene, and its association with the meat quality traits in Sujiang pigs.  Method  The polymorphism of IGFBP2 gene was detected by PCR-RFLP in Sujiang pigs, Jiangquhai pigs and Duroc pigs, and the association between IGFBP2 gene polymorphism and meat quality traits in Sujiang pigs was analyzed.  Result  The results showed that one MspⅠ polymorphism in the intron 2 of IGFBP2 gene was found in three experimental populations, three genotypes (AA, AB and BB) and two alleles (A and B) were detected, the dominant allele and genotype were B and AB. The polymorphism information content were moderate polymorphism in three pig breeds. The marbling of AA and AB genotypes of IGFBP2 gene were significantly higher than that of BB genotypes (P<0.05), and the meat color valueof AA genotype were significantly higher than that of AB and BB genotypes (P<0.05).  Conclusion  Therefore, the PCR-RFLP-MspI polymorphism in the intron 2 of IGFBP2 gene was significantly correlated with some meat traits in the experimental population of Sujiang pig, and it could be used as a potential candidate gene for the meat quality traits.
Analysis of correlation between soil fertility index and Cucumber Root-knot Nematode Disease in different depth of the soil
WANG Hong-bao, CAO Kai-ge, MAO Jia, WU Xian-ping, ZHAO Gui-dong
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](2) [FullText HTML](1) [PDF 0KB](0)
Abstract:
  Objective  In order to understand the correlation between Cucumber Root-knot Nematode Disease and soil fertility index at different depths in greenhouse, and to provide reference for synergistic control of nematode disease by fertilizer and water management measures.  Method  In this experiment, the correlation between root-knot nematode disease and soil fertility index was studied by measuring 6 indexes of pH value, available nitrogen, available potassium, total phosphorus, total nitrogen and organic matter in 0-30 cm soil layer of protected cucumber field at different periods.  Result  The results showed that the indexes of available nitrogen, available potassium and total nitrogen in the upper soil were higher than those in the middle and lower soil at 128, 188 and 218 days of planting, and reached a significant level at P0.05 level. The correlation analysis showed that the change of total phosphorus, available potassium, available nitrogen and PH in different soil layers was highly correlated, while the correlation of total nitrogen in different soil layers was low. It was concluded that the content of total nitrogen fluctuated greatly and varied greatly in different soil layers during the whole growth period. The change of total phosphorus content showed that there was a significant negative correlation between the change of soil content and disease index of cucumber, and the correlation coefficients were −0.842, −0.854, −0.869. In the change of available nitrogen, there was a negative correlation between the upper soil and the disease index of cucumber, and the correlation was −0.562. The correlation coefficient between upper soil and cucumber disease finger was low in the change of available potassium and pH value.  Conclusion  Two fertility indices, total phosphorus content and total nitrogen content, were highly correlated with the disease index of Cucumber Root-knot nematode, and the difference was significant.The changes of soil total phosphorus and total nitrogen content have certain reference value for guiding the comprehensive prevention and control of cucumber root knot nematode disease.
Effects of feeding Schizochytrium on anti-Vibrio vulnificus infection in zebrafish
CHEN Hua, ZHANG Li-juan, LI Su-yi, KE Ling, CHEN Xu, LIN Chen-tao
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](4) [FullText HTML](1) [PDF 730KB](0)
Abstract:
  Objective  In order to study the effects of feeding Schizochytriumon the ability of fish to resist bacterial infection, we conducted afeeding experiment with 6-month adult zebrafishes.  Methods  Zebrafishes were fed with/without Schizochytrium for 28 days in a laboratory culture system and then were challenged by Vibrio vulnificus FJ03-X2. 48 hours after infection, RNA was extracted from the kidney tissues and then reverse transcribed into cDNA.  Results  The immune protective rate reached 42.8%. The results of real-time RT-PCR showed that the mRNA level of Lysozyme in the kidney of zebrafish in group S(feeding with Schizochytrium) was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.01), while the mRNA level of TNFb was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.01).  Conclusion  This study showed that Schizochytrium as a nutrient additive could improve the ability of zebrafish to resist bacterial infection, which provided a theoretical basis for the application of Schizochytriumas a feed additive.
Preliminary resequencing analysis of 18 representative strains of Agaricus bisporus
SHI Xiao-kun, CAI Zhi-xin, GUO Zhong-jie, LU Yuan-ping, CHEN Mei-yuan, LIAO Jian-hua
[Abstract](2) [FullText HTML](0) [PDF 535KB](0)
Abstract:
  Objective  By the genomes resequencing analysis of different types of Agaricus bisporus strains, the genome differences between different strains are to be discussed and the related molecular markers are to be developed.  Method  18 main strains of A.bisporus, i.e. hybrids and wild strains at home and abroad, traditional strains with high production or good quality, brown strains or sterile strains etc.,were resequenced. By using different bioinformatics software, the original reads sequences were aligned to the reference genome sequence of A. bisporus. The SNP and SV were detected according to the aligning results, the different genes based on DNA level were explored, and their functions were annotated in the databases.  Result  21.63G data was obtained with average Q30 value reached 89.10%. The rate of mapped reads on H97 reference genome sequence was 82.50%, while the coverage percentage was 96.32% and average depth was 33 folds. Based on the alignment results, 813,768 SNP and 53,840 InDel were determined, and 924 average SV variations for each strain were got.  Conclusion  According to the results, the relationship among the domestic and abroad strains was discussed, and Chinese As2796 line and Dutch U1 line were suggested to be two main commercial hybrid lines of A. bisporus in the world.
Simultaneous Determination of 15 Phenolic Compounds in Purple Potato by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry
LIU Wen-jing, HUANG Biao, LIN Xiang-xin, , WU Jian-hong, LI Wei, WU Miao-hong
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](4) [FullText HTML](3) [PDF 560KB](0)
Abstract:
  Objective  A method coupling the ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and the triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was established to simultaneously determine 15 phenolic compounds in purple potatoes.  Method  Purple potato specimens were extracted with methanol-water under ultrasound to be separated on a UPLC and analyzed by MS/MS for the phenolic determination.  Result  On a Waters T3 C18 column of the UPLC, the extracts was separated by gradient elution with 0.1% (V/V) formic acid-5mmol/L ammonium acetate aqueous solution and acetonitrile as the mobile phase. The elutes were analyzed using the positive electrospray ionization tandem MS under the multiple reaction monitoring mode. With the optimized conditions and within the concentration range, linearities on the measurements for 15 phenolics with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9956 to 0.9997 were obtained. The methodology had a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.3-5.8µg/L (S/N ≥3) and that of quantitation 1.0-15.2µg/L (S/N ≥10). The average recoveries on the compounds ranged from 73.3% to 97.1% with a relative standard deviation (RSDs) of 1.7-8.9%.  Conclusion  Five categories of phenolic compounds in the concentrations ranging from 0.102mg/kg to 1,698.490 mg/kg were detected in the purple potato specimens by the method. Among them, chlorogenic acid was the highest in quantity, and coumaric acid the lowest. The newly established methodology was deemed sensitive, rapid, accurate, and suitable for phenolic determination on purple potatoes.
Cloning and Expression Analysis of OsPLATZ14 Promoter in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
CHEN Rui, CHEN Jian-ming, WU Ming-ji, YANG Shao-hua, HU Chang-quan
[Abstract](114) [FullText HTML](48) [PDF 816KB](3)
Abstract:
  Objective  In order to further understand the function of OsPLATZ14 and the role of PLATZ transcription factor in rice growth and development, the structure and spatio-temporal expression pattern of pOsPLATZ14 were studied.  Method  The length of pOsPLATZ14 was predicted by using the online software of BDGP, FPROM and Cister. And the cis-acting regulatory elements of pOsPLATZ14 were analyzed through the PlantCARE database. Then pOsPLATZ14 was isolated from the genomic DNA of Nipponbare. pOsPLATZ14::GUS vector was constructed and used to transform rice callus. Using GUS histochemical assay, the spatiotemporal expression characteristics of pOsPLATZ14 were discovered when the transgenic rice plants were generated.  Result  The length of pOsPLATZ14 was 1899 bp by the PCR amplification, and the region contained several cis-elements which were associated with light signal, stress and hormone response. The GUS reporter gene driven by pOsPLATZ14 was expressed obviously in the seed germination stage, in the seedling stage of root, stem and leaf, in the heading period of root, stem, leaf, flower spike, floret, leaf angle, stem-stem junction and root-stem junction, and in the seed maturation stage.  Conclusion  pOsPLATZ14 was the constitutive promoter and its downstream regulatory gene OsPLATZ14 might play an important role in the growth and development of rice.
Main weed species and chemical control techniques of winter-growing potato in Fujian province
LI Huwei, XU Guochun, LUO Wenbin, JI Rongchang, TANG Hao
[Abstract](19) [FullText HTML](9) [PDF 600KB](1)
Abstract:
  Objective  In order to defining the main weed species and chemical control techniques of winter-growing potatoes in Fujian province  Methods  Weeds in potato fields were systematically investigated, and used random block test, studied the control effects of oxadiazone, butachlor, acetochlor, s-metolachlor, quizalofop-p-ethyl, haloxyfop and rimsulfuron on favorita  Results  There are more than twenty weeds species of winter-growing potato field in Fujian Province, the main weeds including Stellaria media, Malachium aquaticum, Chenopodium album, Chenopodium serotinum, Polygonum bungeanum, Polygonum lapathifolium, Digitaria sanguinalis, Portulaca oleracea, Solanum nigrum, Conyza canadensis, over 80% of total weeds. The results of chemical control showed that the better pre-seedling herbicides were 960 g.L−1 metolachlor concentrate, 60% butachlor and 50% acetochlor, The control effect of relative fresh weight in 45 days were 83.7%, 68.4% and 65.4%. the best pro-seedling herbicide were 25% sulfadisulfuron-methyl water dispersible granules, the control effect of relative fresh weight in 45 days was 90.9%.  Conclusion  The result showed that weedswerecomplex and diverse of winter-growing potato in Fujian Province, the 960 g.L−1 metolachlor concentrate and 25% sulfadisulfuron-methyl water dispersible granules are can be used as herbicides in winter-growing potato.
Comparative study on RNA interference system in Frankliniella occidentalis
LI Heng, ZHOU Zhi-en, CHEN Yong, LU Cheng-cong, ZHANG Xiang-qin, WANG Liang, CHEN Yi-xin, TIAN Hou-jun, LIN Shuo, ZHANG Jie, YOU Yong, WEI Hui
[Abstract](66) [FullText HTML](42) [PDF 855KB](4)
Abstract:
  Objective  Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande, is a invasive pest. It causes serious damage to vegetables and ornamental crops in China, because of its rapidreproduction ability, various hosts,and high resistance to insecticides. To assess the silence efficiency of Actin gene at the mRNA in F. occidentalis by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) through membrane-feeding andmicroinjection methods, so as to providebasic information for the gene function analysis in the thrips by using RNAi technology.  Method  dsRNA was synthesized and injected or fed into the body cavity of the 2nd-instar nymphs, and the thrips were collected and the mRNA expression was detected by RT-qPCR at 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. In addition, the effects of dsRNA (0.5 μg·μL-1) on the body length, wing or abdmen -thorax malformation rate and mortality rate of Frankliniella occidentalis were investigated in the laboratory using the individual culture method.  Result  The relative expression level of Actin mRNA in the membrane-feeding group was similar to the dsGFP control at 24, 48 and 72 h after dsRNA fed by the thrips. However, compared with the control, the relative expression level of Actin in the injection group decreased to 68%, 56% and 53%, respectively, at 24, 48 and 72 h after dsRNA injection into the thrips, leading to higher mortality (44%-98%) rate, shorter body length (90% for dsActin/ dsGFP), higher wing or abdmen -thorax malformation (41%) rate compared with the dsGFP control.  Conclusion  The Actin expression can be significantly suppressed at mRNA level in the F. occidentalis after dsActin injection, leading to developmental malformation and death. This indicated that the in vivo RNAi system for thrips was established.
Cloning and expression of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp.capri specific protein gene Mmc-3740
ZHANG Jing-peng, JIANG Jin-xiu, LIN Yu-sheng, YOU wei, HU Qi-lin
[Abstract](68) [FullText HTML](40) [PDF 770KB](2)
Abstract:
  Objective  To construct a recombinant bacteria expressing the specific protein gene Mmc-3740 of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri and lay a foundation for further research and application of the protein.  Method  The gene was amplified from Mmc-47 by PCR and then cloned and sequenced. Double digestion of the cloned plasmids and pET-28a, recovered the correct fragments for ligation and construction of recombinant expression plasmid. The recombinant expression plasmid was verified by sequencing and transformed into the expression strain BL21 (DE3), IPTG was used to induce the expression, expression products were identified by SDS-PAGE and purified through nickel affinity chromatography and to produce hyperimmune serum against mouse, and then identified by Western Blot analysis.  Results  The cloning and expression vector were successfully constructed, the molecular weight of recombinant protein was about 21 ku, the expressed product can be purified by nickel affinity chromatography and had good immunogenicity.  Conclusion  This study successfully expressed Mmc-3740 recombinant protein in BL21 (DE3), which laid a foundation for further study of the function and characteristics of Mmc-3740 protein.
Effects of Cadmium Stress on Physiology and Enrichment of Tagetes Seedlings
LIU Han-sheng, ZHAO Chun-li, LIU Yue, GUO Wei-qiang
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](4) [FullText HTML](3) [PDF 0KB](0)
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  Objective  Studying the physiological indexes and enrichment indexes of germination of Tagetes seedlings (Tagetes erecta L. Tagetes patula L.)under different cadmium (0、0.3、3、20、60、120、180、240 mg·L−1). Comparison of soluble protein, malondialdehyde, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and cadmium uptake, clearly different concentrations of cadmium stress Tagetesphysiological regulatory mechanisms and accumulation plant seedlings.  Method  Treatment of seedlings by cadmium stress by hydroponic test. The effects of cadmium stress on physiological indexes and seedling enrichment effects of marigold and peafowl seedlings were studied by determination of soluble protein, malondialdehyde, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and cadmium uptake.  Result  With the increase of Cd stress concentration, the soluble protein content of Tagetes erecta seedlings gradually decreased. Malondialdehyde content decreases first, then increases and then decreases. Peroxidase activity gradually increased, superoxide dismutase activity decreased first, then increased and then decreased. The soluble protein content of Tagetes patula seedlings gradually decreased. The content of malondialdehyde first decreased, then rose, then decreased, and then rose. Peroxidase first rises and then falls, and superoxide dismutase content first rises, then falls, then rises and then falls. The cadmium uptake of Tagetes erecta seedlings and Tagetes patulaseedlings increased with the increase of Cd stress concentration. When the Tagetes erecta seedlings and Tagetes patulaseedlings were stressed by 180 mg·L−1Cd, the Cd content in the seedlings reached 440.40 and 478.23 mg·kg−1.  Conclusion  The medium and low Cd stress(0.3−120 mg·L−1)had little physiological impact on marigold and peafowl seedlings, and it could regulate itself. High amount of Cd stress(180, 240 mg·L−1)has a greater impact on the damage. The enrichment of Tagetes erecta seedlings and Tagetes patula seedlings increased with the increase of Cd stress concentration,until the seedlings do not germinate.Peroxidase plays a leading role in the physiological mechanism of Tagetes erecta seedlings resistance to Cd stress, and superoxide dismutase plays a leading role in the physiological mechanism of Tagetes patulaseedlings resistance to Cd stress.The application of Tagetesseeds for phytoremediation has great prospects.
2019, 34(9): 1-2.  
[Abstract](18) [FullText HTML](21) [PDF 350KB](6)
Abstract:
Crop Science
Effect of N and K Applications on Dry Matter Generation and Yield of Hybrid Rice K Liangyou 1269
LIU Duan-hua
2019, 34(9): 997-1002.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2019.09.001
[Abstract](33) [FullText HTML](34) [PDF 679KB](10)
Abstract:
  Objective  Effects of N and K applications on dry matter generation and yield of two-line hybrid rice K Liangyou 1269 in the field were observed to optimize the fertilization practice.  Method  The rice plants were treated with N and K at 7 levels. The chlorophyll, dry matters, and panicles formed of the growing plants were monitored, and the grain yield determined at harvest.  Result  The leaf SPAD of the plants increased with increasing N at a constant K level, but not significantly at varied K applications. From the beginning to 30 d after transplantation, the crop growth rate (CGR) increased linearly as N increased but changed to a parabolic correlation afterward with a peak CGR observed at the N application of 18 g·m−2. The K application and CGR of the plants at all growth stages exhibited a parabolic relationship with the highest CGR at 20 g K·m−2. The dry matter accumulation in stems and leaves rose linearly with increasing N in 30 d after transplantation but peaked under 18 g N·m−2 in the period from full heading to maturation. Between the stem/leaf dry matter accumulation and K application a basically parabolic pattern existed with a maximized content of dry matters under 20 g K·m−2. The grain yields also parabolically correlated to either N or K application that peaked at 18 g N·m−2 and 20 g K·m−2.  Conclusion  Based upon the test results, the applications of N at 22.09 g·m−2 and of K at 19.14 g·m−2 , or 2.21 kg N and 1.91 kg K2O for 100 kg grains, were recommended for cultivation of K Liangyou 1269 in northern Fujian.
Effects of Phosphate Fertilization on Soil Fertility and Plant Morphology, Grain Yield and Quality of Fagopyrum esculentum
HE Pei-yun, HUANG Xiao-yan, WANG Yu, SHI Zheng, HUANG Kai-feng
2019, 34(9): 1003-1008.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2019.09.002
[Abstract](23) [FullText HTML](18) [PDF 544KB](2)
Abstract:
  Objective  Effects of phosphate (P) fertilizer on the soil fertility and the plant morphology, available nutrients, and grain yield and quality of common buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum, were investigated.  Method  A high yield buckwheat, Fengtian 1 (FT1), was cultivated under P fertilization at 0 kg·hm−2 P (CK), 35 kg·hm−2 P (LP), 70 kg·hm−2 P (MP) or 105 kg·hm−2 P (HP). Effects of the fertilizations on the soil nutrient contents as well as the root morphology, aboveground botanical characteristics, and yield of the buckwheat plants were determined.  Result  The increased P fertilizer applications enhanced the contents of available nutrients and organic matters in soil with a peak under MP. But the soil pH was on a continuous downward trend upon increasing P. For the plants, the root length, volume, and surface area reached their highest levels with MP as well. However, the root diameter was not significantly affected by the changes on the application. Morphologically, the plant height, node and branch numbers on main stems, 1- to 2-internode length, 1- to 2-internode diameter, and grain yield increased significantly under MP, much more than the other treatments. Again, the higher P in HP did not render further increases as MP did. Among all treatments, MP also delivered the greatest grain yield, which was 1.43 times that of CK. Similarly, the contents of protein, dietary fiber, rutin, quercetin, and kaempferol of the FT1 grains rose along with the increasing P application up to the level in MP. On the other hand, the flavonoid in the grains reached the highest level under CK and the lowest under HP.  Conclusion  It appeared that P fertilization in the amount of MP would be appropriate for the growth, grain yield and quality of FT1 plants.
Changes of Rice Production Efficiency in Taiwan
ZHOU Qiong, WANG Jia-jia, ZENG Yu-rong
2019, 34(9): 1009-1018.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2019.09.003
[Abstract](17) [FullText HTML](14) [PDF 582KB](1)
Abstract:
  Objective  The changes of rice production efficiency taken place in Taiwan from 2002 to 2016 were analyzed.   Method   The production data were compared according to the data envelopment analysis, Malmquist productivity index, and grey relational analysis.   Result   The mean rice production efficiency in Taiwan during the period was 0.970, and that for the 1st season was 0.974, slightly higher than that of 0.966 for the 2nd season. There were variations among the localities with the highest of 1.000 achieved in Yilan County, Hsinchu County/City, Changhua County, Chiayi County/City, and Taitung County. The efficiency also fluctuated substantially, as the productivity index for the 1st season to be 0.987 with an annual decline of 1.3% and that for the 2nd season to be 0.955 with an annual decline of 4.5%. The correlation between the efficiency and technological advancement had a coefficient of 0.746 9 for the 1st season and 0.893 2 for the 2nd season. Whereas, that between the efficiency and operational effectiveness had a coefficient of 0.583 2 for the 1st season and 0.605 6 for the 2nd season. Thus, it appeared that the technological progress affected the rice production efficiency to a greater degree.   Conclusion   The rice production in Taiwan was highly efficient but differed regionally and showed a generally downward trend. Its efficiency changed over the years due largely to the technical innovation, which, along with policy augments, partially compensated the scope of the otherwise decline.
Horticultural Science
Transcriptome Analysis on Pathway of and Genes Related to Flavonoid Synthesis in Dendrobium officinale
LIN Jiang-bo, WANG Wei-ying, ZOU Hui, DAI Yi-min
2019, 34(9): 1019-1025.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2019.09.004
[Abstract](60) [FullText HTML](33) [PDF 866KB](7)
Abstract:
  Objective  Pathway and genes related to the flavonoid synthesis in Dendrobium officinale were analyzed for studying on the metabolic regulation and medicinal applications of flavonoids.  Method  Transcriptomes of the stems and leaves of D. officinale plants at two growth stages were determined by means of Illumina HiSeq 4000 high-throughput sequencing. The assembled unigenes were used for the functional annotation and genetic analysis of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway.  Result  There were 48 unigenes involving 14 enzymes found to be associated with the flavonoid metabolism. Among them, the 5 CHS-related unigenes showed a CHS-like conserved domain, highly conserved amino acid residues (Cys-His-Asn) at the active site, and mutated amino acid residues at the malonyl-CoA and product binding sites; and, the CHI (Unigene0013781) was identified as a Type I chalcone isomerase, isomerizing 6'-hydroxychalone to 5-hydroxyflavanone. The expressions of CHS (Unigene0008250), CHI (Unigene0013781) and F3H were higher than those of CHS (Unigene 0012884) and C3′H in the stems and leaves of the plants at both growth stages.  Conclusion  Forty-eight unigenes involving 14 enzymes associated with the flavonoid metabolism in D. officinale plants were identified by the transcriptome analysis. Of the 5 CHS-related unigenes, two encoded chalcone synthase, and 3 bibenzyl synthase, while the CHI (Unigene0013781) a Type I chalcone isomerase.
Effects of LED Light on Growth and Chlorophyll Fluorescence of Cherry Tomatoes
FAN Xiao-xue, YANG Ya-na, XU Gang
2019, 34(9): 1026-1031.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2019.09.005
[Abstract](18) [FullText HTML](13) [PDF 589KB](4)
Abstract:
  Objective  Effects of exposure to red and/or blue LEDs in a cultivation facility on growth and photosynthesis of cherry tomato plants were studied.  Method  Starting at 3-leaves-1-shoot stage, the Millennium Tomato seedlings were exposed to white light (CK), LEDred:blue=1 1, LEDred:blue=7 3, LEDred:blue=3 7, red LED and blue LED for 30 days. During the treatment, changes on the dry and fresh weight gains, growth, and root/shoot ratio of the seedlings as well as the photosynthetic pigment contents, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, peroxidase (POD) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the leaves were monitored.  Result  The fresh weight of the tomato plants exposed to the LED treatments was higher than that of CK with the greatest effect found under 7red 3blue, which was 50.5% higher than that of CK, and the second highest of 31.3% increase over CK under 1red:1blue. On a dry weight basis, however, the greatest increase of 61.0% over CK was observed under 1red 1blue, which also rendered a significantly higher plant growth index than CK and the other treatments. Almost all the LED treatments increased the contents of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, except for red LED, which inhibited chlorophyll generation. POD became more active under increasing red exposure but less with increasing blue proportion when red and blue LEDs were combined for the treatment. No significant differences in the SOD activity of the plants exposed to different LED treatments was observed. The exposure to 1red 1blue produced the most MDA in leaves while red LED the least.  Conclusion  The 1red 1blue LED combination yielded strong growth, high dry matter accumulation, and improved photosynthetic efficiency on the cherry tomato plants cultivated under a controlled environment as shown in the experimentation.
Tissue Culture for Rapid Propagation of A Cymbidium goeringii Hybrid
QI Zi-yu, ZHOU Yu-zheng, AI Ye, PENG Dong-hui
2019, 34(9): 1032-1039.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2019.09.006
[Abstract](12) [FullText HTML](9) [PDF 674KB](2)
Abstract:
  Objective  Optimum conditions for an efficient, rapid propagation from rhizomes of a Cymbidium goeringii hybrid were investigated.  Method  Rhizomes of the aseptically seeded F1 hybrid between two C. goeringii cultivars, Huang-mei and Huang-he, were cultivated on various media (i.e., 1/2MS、modified 1/2MS, and HyponexⅡ) with added plant growth regulators (i.e., 6-BA, NAA, TDZ, and/or IBA) to monitor the plant growth throughout propagation, differentiation, and rooting of the regeneration process. The seedlings were subsequently transplanted outdoor to determine their survival rate.  Result  In the propagation stage, the optimal medium was 3.0 g HyponexⅡ·L−1 + 0.5 mg 6-BA·L−1 + 3.0 mg NAA·L−1 + 1.0 g activated carbon (AC)·L−1 + 30.0 g sugar (Su)·L−1 + 7.0 g agar (Ag)·L−1 to achieve a growing rate of 7.31 and a multiplication coefficient of 6.02. The optimal medium for differentiation was 2.0 mg 6-BA·L−1 + 0.3 mg NAA·L−1 + 30.0 g Su·L−1 + 7.0 g Ag·L−1 to deliver an averaged 90.00% differentiation, 5.44 buds per rhizome segment, and 2.53 cm height of seedling. For optimum rooting, the medium was 1.5 mg IBA·L−1 + 2.0 g peptone·L−1 + 1.0 g AC·L−1 + 25.0 g Su·L−1 + 7.0 g Ag·L−1 to result in 100.00% root-generation with an averaged 8.03 roots at 3.00 cm long per plant. The survival rate of plantlets 60 d after transplantation was up to 96.53%.  Conclusion  HyponexⅡ applied at 3.0 g·L−1 was found highly efficient for the C. goeringii rhizome regeneration; and, the addition of 1.5 mg·L−1 of IBA in the medium significantly enhanced the rooting for the seedlings.
Preliminary Studies on Embryo Rescue and Seed Germination Promotion of Clematis Texensis
SUN Rui-qi, YU Wei-jun, ZENG Li-hui
2019, 34(9): 1040-1046.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2019.09.007
[Abstract](16) [FullText HTML](10) [PDF 959KB](1)
Abstract:
  Objective  To seek means for improvement on crossbreeding the appealing, long flowering, widely adaptable bell clematis by overcoming the long dormancy and high embryo abortion in seed germination.  Method  Seeds of Dream King clematis (Clematis texensis) collected 45 d after pollination were cultured in vitro on various media to optimize the conditions for embryo rescue and dormancy breaking. An orthogonal experiment of 12 treatments consisting of additions of 6-BA and/or NAA in various concentrations as well as exposures to temperatures and daylight was conducted to observe the resulting seed germination and seedling survival.  Result  The addition of 0.5 mg·L−1 6-BA and 0.05 mg·L−1 NAA to the MS basic medium improved the seed germination rate to 54%, with 47% of the seedlings reached maturation. When 10% of coconut milk was added to the medium, both seed germination and seedling survival rate were significantly raised to reach 62%. Exposure of the seeds to low temperature and day 25℃/night 15℃ promoted the germination. And, the presence of either 50 mg·L−1 ​​​​​​GA or 30 mg·L−1 6-BA in the medium facilitated breaking the seed dormancy.  Conclusion  Embryos of clematis could be rescued in vitro to mitigate premature abortion caused by high temperature. The growth hormone addition could significantly shorten dormancy and promote germination of the bell clematis seeds.
Effects of Supplemental Light on Growth, Physiology, and Quality of Chili Peppers Cultivated in Solar Greenhouse
WANG Cui-li, ZHAO Xu, ZHAO Peng, YANG Shi-mei, CHEN Liang, YAN Zong-shan, XIE Zhong-qing, ZHANG Xiao-ling
2019, 34(9): 1047-1052.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2019.09.008
[Abstract](14) [FullText HTML](10) [PDF 621KB](4)
Abstract:
  Objective  Effects of supplemental light on the growth, photosynthesis, and quality of chili peppers cultivated in a solar greenhouse were studied.  Method  In the greenhouse, Chili Pepper 37-94 plants were exposed to supplemental light emitted from LEDs at red blue=5 1,LEDs at red blue white=3 1 1), or a plant supplementary lamp for observations and measurements on the responses of the plants.  Result  The plant height, stem girth, leaf length, leaf width, and chlorophyll content of the treated plants were significantly greater than those of control, Under the LEDs at red blue white=3 1 1 treatment, the net leaf photosynthetic rate increased by 63.72%, and the contents of soluble sugar, soluble protein, and Vc of the chilis rose 70%, 77%, and 8.2%, respectively, over those of control. Among the 3 treatments, LEDs at red blue=5 1 produced the highest Gs, Ci, and Tr in the leaves with increases of 73.33%, 12.94%, and 35.83, respectively, over those of control.  Conclusion  Exposure of LEDs at red blue white=3 1 1 promoted the photosynthesis increasing the chlorophyll formation and accumulation in the chili pepper plants that enhanced the plant growth and improved chili quality.
Animal Science
Prokaryotic Expression, Polyclonal Antibody Preparation and Purification of PPARδ Protein in Nile Tilapia
PAN Chuan-yan, FENG Peng-fei, ZHANG Yong-de, LUO Hong-lin
2019, 34(9): 1053-1058.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2019.09.009
[Abstract](61) [FullText HTML](31) [PDF 829KB](1)
Abstract:
  Objective  The prokaryotic expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) in Nile tilapia was determined for the preparation of a polyclonal antibody against the receptor protein.  Method  The bioinformatics analysis on PPARδ was conducted to arrive at a primer designed for amplification. The amplified products were subcloned into expression vector pET-B2m to construct recombinant plasmid for transformation into E. coli B21 with IPTG induction. The expressed protein was identified by SDS-PAGE and purified with a Ni-NTA prior to immunization on Japanese white rabbits. A polyclonal antibody with its titer determined by ELISA and specificity analyzed by the western blotting was obtained.  Result  The prokaryotic expression vector pET-B2m-PPARδ was successfully constructed. The recombinant protein with molecular weight of 90 KD was expressed in both inclusion body and soluble proteins. The titer of the rabbit anti-PPARδ polyclonal antibody was 1 2 048 000. The western blot confirmed that the antibody reacted specifically with PPARδ protein.  Conclusion  This study successfully expressed and purified the PPARδ recombinant protein of Nile tilapia, and subsequently, obtained the polyclonal antibodies with high specificity and efficacy that could be used for further research on PPARδ in Nile tilapia.
Plant Protection
Effects of Flowering Plants on Fecundity and Lifespan of Adult Ectropis grisescens
CHEN Li-lin
2019, 34(9): 1059-1063.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2019.09.010
[Abstract](25) [FullText HTML](17) [PDF 752KB](2)
Abstract:
  Objective  To explore a means for biocontrol of Ectropis grisescens Warren, one of the most common and serious pests in tea plantations, by intercropping with flowering plants.  Method  Effects of the flowers of Chamaecrista rotundifolia (Pers.) Greene, Chamaecradta nictitans Moench, Cassia bicapsularis L., Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck.) Merr., Ruellia brittoniana Leonard, and Asclepias curassavica L., were compared to those of 5% honey and water on the fecundity and lifespan of adult E. grisescens for the study.  Result  The flowers of C. rotundifolia, C. nictitans, C. bicapsularis, W. chinensis, and A. curassavica significantly shortened the lifespan and decreased the fecundity of adult female E. grisescens as compared to the exposure of the insects to water or 5% honey. The flowers of R. brittoniana, C. rotundifolia, C. nictitans, and C. bicapsularis significantly reduced the fecundity of adult male E. grisescens in comparison to water, 5% honey or R. brittoniana flower. Among the treatments, the highest oviposition of the adult females was found in contact with water that produced 305.7 eggs per insect on average, and the flowers of A. curassavica allowed the lowest average of 38.3 eggs per female adult. On lifespan, the longest was observed in the insects under the water treatment as well, with an average of 13.68 d for the females and 12.36 d for the males. The flowers of W. chinensis and C. bicapsularis cut the average lifespans of the female and male adults to the shortest of all treatments at 6.56 d for the adult females and 5.60 d for the adult males.  Conclusion  Utilizing the flowering plants such as C. rotundifolia, C. nictitans, and/or C. bicapsularis to intercrop in tea plantations helped reduce the fitness and reproduction of E. grisescens. It seemed to represent a promising potential for a viable, environmentally friendly biocontrol on the pest in tea plantations.
Effects of Pesticides on Growth and Food Safety of Tremella fuciformis
YAO Qing-hua, YAN Sun-an, CHEN Mei-zhen, HUANG Min-min, LIN Qiu
2019, 34(9): 1064-1072.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2019.09.011
[Abstract](11) [FullText HTML](10) [PDF 704KB](6)
Abstract:
  Objective  Effect of various pesticides on the growth of Tremella fuciformis Berk and the food safety assessment on the pesticide residues were studied.  Method  Two major T. fuciformis Berk cultivars, Tr01 and Tr21, of Gutian County in Fujian were cultivated on substrates under 9 treatments that applied 11 pesticides in varied concentrations to monitor the fungal growth and yield. Upon maturation, fruiting bodies were harvested for chemical analysis to determine the health risk of pesticide residues for food consumption.  Result  Other than imidacloprid, none of the tested pesticides left a detectable residue in the fruiting bodies. Even the highest hazard quotients (HQs) of imidacloprid on the acute and chronic health risks were far below 1 at 0.006 and 0.000 9, respectively. The application of 20% isoprocarb emulsion caused deformation on the fruiting bodies of both varieties. On fungal yield, among the pesticides, 3.5% cypermethrin and 1.5% acetamiprid microemulsion reduced the yields of both cultivars; 5% avermectin emulsion and 30% acephate emulsion lowered the yield of Tr01; and, 3% bifenthrin and 3% acetamiprid microemulsion decreased the yield of Tr21.  Conclusion  The growth of Tr01 was more sensitivity to pesticide applications than Tr21, and neither T. fuciformis cultivars could develop normally on substrate with the presence of isoprocarb. Within the treatment limits applied in this study, the pesticide residues in the fruiting bodies seemed to post little health risk for consumers.
Bacterial Diversities in Rhizosphere Soils at Sites of Healthy and Fusarium Wilt Infected Chili Plants
LAI Bao-chun, DAI Rui-qing, WU Zhen-qiang, LI Feng, LIN De-feng, WANG Jia-rui
2019, 34(9): 1073-1080.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2019.09.012
[Abstract](7) [FullText HTML](8) [PDF 791KB](4)
Abstract:
  Objective  Diversities of the bacterial community in the rhizosphere soils, where healthy or fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum Schl.) infected chili plants were found, were compared for information to facilitate the disease control.  Method  Soil samples at sites of healthy (JK) and diseased (KW) chili plants from 3 cultivation extension stations in Zhangzhou, Fujian were collected. The macrogenomic sequences of the specimens were obtained using Illumina Miseq high-throughput platform.  Result  The high-quality alpha diversity indices on KW was 14376 fewer and the operational taxonomic units 1239 less than those of JK. The microbial phyla found in JK and KW were similar on composition but significantly differed on relative abundance. Among the various genera identified, Sphingomonas in JK was 5.05% higher than in KW on relative abundance, while Metallibacterium 6.09% lower. The analysis on part of the species indicated that the abundance of 4 genera, such as Solirubrobacter, Microbispora, Catelliglobosispora and Pseudolabrys, were lower in KW than JK.  Conclusion  The differentiations between JK and KW on the composition and abundance of their microbial communities could likely affect the occurrence of the wilt on the chili plants grown on the sites. Hence, measures for remedy, such as addition of dominant probiotics in the soil at early stage of plant growth, might be a plausible new approach to control the wilt disease on chili plants in the field.
Tribenuron-methyl Tolerance of Brassica napus Restorer Line 18Z363
ZHANG Chao, DAI Wen-dong, WANG Jun, TANG Rong, HUANG Sha, YANG Ke-xiang, RAO Yong
2019, 34(9): 1081-1086.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2019.09.013
[Abstract](10) [FullText HTML](8) [PDF 556KB](1)
Abstract:
  Objective  Effects of the herbicide, tribenuron-methylon, in varied concentrations on the survival rate, chlorophyll content, and agronomic traits of Brassica napus L. were studied to determine the appropriate dosage for field application.  Method  In a pot experiment, seedlings of B. napus polima cytoplasmic male sterility (polCMS) restorer lines, including 18Z363, M342, 2350C, and the hybrid (LDX95-58A×18Z363), at 4 to 6 leaves stage were sprayed with tribenuron-methylon solutions in varied concentrations. Chlorophyll contents in leaves of the plants were measured 7d after treatments using a SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter. Survival rates of the seedlings were determined 14d after the spraying. In the field, agronomic traits of the mature plants, which had been treated at 4 to 6 leaves stage, were observed.  Result  Overall, the leaf SPAD decreased with increasing herbicide dosage applied on the plants. When the application dosage was greater than or equal to 18.0 g·hm−2 , it declined significantly in the herbicide-susceptible line 2350C reaching a low level, but remained high in the resistant lines 18Z363, M342, and the hybrid. Meanwhile, all 2350C seedlings died in 2 weeks, whereas, more than 88.9% of 18Z363, M342 or the hybrid survived the treatments. Once the herbicide application was beyond 18.0 g·hm−2, even the resistant species began to show ill-effects in varying degrees on the agronomic traits.  Conclusion  The results appeared that the upper limit of tribenuron-methyl usage around the restorer line18Z363 and its hybrids was 18.0 g·hm−2.
Food Science
Effects of Hot-air Drying Temperature on Protein Extraction and Quality of Soybeans
LIANG Zhang-cheng, WANG Hong-li, HE Zhi-gang, DOU Fang-jiao, LIN Xiao-zi
2019, 34(9): 1087-1092.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2019.09.014
[Abstract](105) [FullText HTML](73) [PDF 724KB](8)
Abstract:
  Objective  Effects of hot-air drying temperature on protein extraction and quality of soybeans were studied for a process design.  Method  The moisture content, dehulling efficiency, protein extraction rate, lipoxygenase activity, and sensory quality of the Northeast soybeans mechanically dehulled after heating with hot-air at 50, 60, 70, 80, 90℃ for 10 min were compared with those of the non-hot-air-treated counterparts to evaluate the effects of hot-air temperature on the process and product quality.   Results  With the increasing hot-air temperature, the moisture content and protein extraction rate of the soybeans decreased, the effective dehulling percentage increased significantly then leveled off, and the beany note diminished gradually accompanied by an increased fried soybeans aroma.  conclusion  The optimum hot-air drying for the soybeans was determined to be 80℃ for 10 min to yield a 99.61% dehulling rate, a 90.64% protein extraction, and a fading beany but a faint fried beans aroma. The lipoxygenase activity in the heated soybeans was partially inhibited but remained substantially high indicating the applied temperature/time was insufficient to fully inactive the enzyme.
Chemistry and In Vitro Immunological Activity of Polysaccharides from Sparassis latifolia
ZHANG Di, WANG Hong-yu, XIAO Dong-lai, LIN Yan-quan
2019, 34(9): 1093-1099.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2019.09.015
[Abstract](33) [FullText HTML](25) [PDF 1117KB](1)
Abstract:
  Objective  Chemical structure and in vitro immunological activity of the water soluble polysaccharides from Sparassis latifolia were studied .  Method  The lyophilized powder of S. latifolia fruiting bodies was extracted by hot water to obtain polysaccharides SCG-D. From the extract, the SCG-N and SCG-A fractions were isolated by the DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow ion exchange chromatography. The structure of SCG-A was analyzed using HPSEC, monosaccharide composition analysis, FT-IR, and NMR. The in vitro immunological activities of the extract and the fractions were determined by a test on rat spleen lymphocytes.  Result  SCG-D was found active in promoting the lymphocyte proliferation. SCG-A exhibited the strongest activity with a proliferation rate of 32.7% at the concentration of 100 μg/mL in 72h, while SCG-N activity was lower at 11.66%. The molecular weight of SCG-A was 4.30×105Da with an α-1,4-D-glucan as its main chain consisting primarily of glucose and galactose with some 1-6-branches.  Conclusion  The water-soluble polysaccharides and its fractions obtained from the lyophilized S. latifolia powder showed varying in vitro immune activities of promoting the proliferation of rat spleen lymphocytes. The acidic SCG-A had a main chain structure of α-1,4-glucan with 1-6-branches and showed the greatest immunological activity among the 3 polysaccharide materials.
Effects of Different Dehydration Methods on Quality Dehydration of Myrciaria cauliflora
QIU Shan-lian, LIN Bao-mei, ZHANG Shao-ping, HONG Jia-min, ZHANG Shuai, ZHENG Kai-bin
2019, 34(9): 1100-1107.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2019.09.016
[Abstract](14) [FullText HTML](16) [PDF 609KB](4)
Abstract:
  Objective  Conditions of dehydration process to preserve jabuticaba, Myrciaria cauliflora, were studied for optimization.  Method  Sensory quality and nutritional contents of fat, protein, crude fiber, starch, reducing sugar, ash, fructose, glucose, sucrose, moisture, vitamin C, selenium, and total polyphenols of the dried fruits were used as criteria to evaluate the dehydration by hot air at 50℃, 60℃ or 70℃ and by vacuum freeze-drying. Experimental data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA.  Results  The sensory quality of the freeze-dried jabuticaba was the best among all samples. The dried product remained a color and shape of the peel and pulp close to those of the fresh fruit, and the texture was uniform and palatable. In contrast, the hot air drying darkened and dulled the color, severely shrunk and deformed the appearance, and hardened the fruit. Nutritionally, the contents of protein, fat, sucrose, vitamin C, and total polyphenols in the dehydrated products processed by freeze-drying were significantly higher than those by the hot air-drying. Furthermore, the moisture content of the freeze-dried samples was 5.92%, which was significantly lower than that by the hot air-drying. It appeared that the vacuum freeze-drying was superior among the 4 methods. The fruits dried with hot air at 50℃ had the highest contents of starch, crude fiber, ash, and amino acids, followed by the freeze-dried counterparts. And, the higher the hot air temperature applied for the dehydration, the lower the contents of starch, protein, ash, vitamin C, selenium, moisture, total polyphenols, and amino acids, and the higher the contents of reducing sugars, fructose, and glucose in the dried jabuticaba.  Conclusion   The vacuum freeze-drying was considered the choice for jabuticaba dehydration as it yielded desirable sensory quality as well as nutritional value for the product.
Agricultural Information
Effectiveness of Network Communication through Publication of Trade Journals—Using Fujian Journal of Agricultural Sciences Statistics for Discussion
ZHANG Mei, WENG Zhi-hui, LIN Hai-qing, CHI Min-qing, HUANG Jin-ze
2019, 34(9): 1108-1116.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2019.09.017
[Abstract](13) [FullText HTML](13) [PDF 822KB](1)
Abstract:
  Objective  To analyze the effectiveness of network communication and information dissemination through publication of trade journals for agricultural communities.  Methods  The statistics relating to network communication of the Fujian Journal of Agricultural Sciences (FJAS) using the Open Access (OA) and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) platforms were compiled. Data with respect to the annual downloads and browses, user geography and affiliation distributions in 2012—2017, as well as the total downloads, downloads per article, and distributions of download frequency on papers published from 2008 to 2017 were used for the analysis.  Results  (1) During 2012—2017, the number of downloads of articles published in FJAS through the OA platform was 1,640,600 and that of browses 3,252,200. Comparing to CNKI, they were 6.44 times higher on the downloads and 12.03 times on the browses. The visitations on FJAS through both platforms in that period were continually rising in numbers. (2) From 2008 to 2017, the total downloads on FJAS published material through the OA platform reached 1,042,900 averaging 503 per paper, which were significantly higher than those of CNKI (i.e., 30,250 downloads averaging 146 per paper). (3) In those years, the majority of FJAS online users on OA were from China (887,800 downloads) and the United States (64,0700 downloads). All foreign users made 46.83% of the total browse. Meanwhile, on the CNKI platform, most FJAS logons came from China, with 286,000 downloads accounting for 99.13% of the total. (4) In China, the FJAS domestic users who used OA were mainly from Beijing and Shanghai; whereas those applied the CNKI platform were largely from the economically well-developed localities and science-and-technology-oriented higher education and research institutions.  Conclusion  The OA platform was the main venue for network communication accessed by readers in search for information provided by academic periodicals. It significantly contributed to the international communication and information exchange. The CNKI platform, on the other hand, tended to be the choice by domestic scientific information seekers. The two platforms complemented each other by serving different audiences. Consequently, further improving the OA platform and, at the same time, enhancing the joint efforts with CNKI would highly benefit the agriculture and scientific communities in fostering the communication, extending the reach, and assisting the information dissemination.
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