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Effect of endogenous hormone content and gene expression related to hormone synthesis on tuber expansion of Bikeqi yam
AO Lan-ji-ya, JI Xiang, SHAO Ying, ZHAO Lingmin, ZHANG Yan-fang, HUO Xiu-wen
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](241) [FullText HTML](255) [PDF 692KB](8)
Abstract:
  Objective  To investigate the changes of starch content, reducing sugar content and soluble total sugar content in tubers, the changes of endogenous hormone content in tubers, the morphological indexes, physiological indexes and the analysis of variance of endogenous hormones during the process of tuber expansion. And the correlation between these indicators and endogenous hormones, lay the foundation for further study of the physiological mechanism of yam growth and development and guiding the high yield and quality cultivation of yam.  Method  Six kinds of endogenous hormones such as ABA, GA3, IAA, JA, ZR and IPA were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with different tuber lengths of Bikeqi yam. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the content of salicylic acid (SA), and to analyze the dynamic changes of source hormone content in different growth stages, and the correlation between morphological indicators of yam and endogenous hormones. The relationship between differentially expressed genes associated with endogenous hormones and endogenous hormones was explored for the effects of these factors on the expansion of yam tubers.  Result  The contents of IAA, ZR, ABA, JA and SA were positively correlated with the morphological indexes of yam tuber; the contents of GA3 and IPA were negatively correlated with the morphological indexes; the contents of IAA were positively correlated with the perimeter and diameter of yam tuber; the contents of GA3 were negatively correlated with the length of tuber; the genes correlated with IAA were negatively correlated with the contents of IAA  Conclusion  Endogenous hormones IAA, ZR, ABA, JA and SA promote the expansion of yam tuber; endogenous hormones GA3 and IPA inhibit the growth of yam tuber; endogenous hormones IAA promote the thickening of yam; endogenous hormones GA3 inhibit the elongation of yam; the down-regulation of IAA related genes can promote the synthesis of IAA, that is, regulate the content of IAA.
Effects of Water Activity and Temperature on Growth and Toxin-producing of Aspergillus flavus MI18-S1 on Tartary Buckwheat Grains
ZHOU Piao, ZHANG Xiao-na, CHEN Qing-fu
[Abstract](190) [FullText HTML](140) [PDF 1118KB](1)
Abstract:
  Objective  Effects of water activity (aw) and temperature on the growth and toxicity of Aspergillus flavus on mature grains of tartary buckwheat were studied to determine the safety conditions for harvest, processing, transportation, and storage of the crop.  Method  Varied medium aw (i.e., 0.87, 0.90, 0.93, 0.95 and 0.99) were created by additions of glycerol to culture A. flavus MI18-S1 isolated from the infected grains for a 7 d test at 15, 21, 28, 35 or 42℃. Colony diameter on petri dish was measured, spore count calculated from the blood cell counter board, and aflatoxin content determined by HPLC.  Result  The fungus was found to produce aflatoxins B1 and B2, predominately B1, but not G1 or G2. The highest spore count and toxicity were generated at 28℃ and aw=0.93. At a temperature either below 15℃ or above 42℃, the fungal growth and toxin-production slowed or ceased. Within the range between these temperatures, the aflatoxin content increased at first and followed by a decline. A multivariate linear regression analysis showed no significant correlation between the colony diameter and the toxin production. Instead, the amount of aflatoxin generated in the culture was mainly affected by the aw and temperature of the environment, and most critically, sporulation of the fungus. And, sporulation of the fungus was significantly affected by the aw, temperature of the environment, the amount of aflatoxin generated in the culture and the colony diameter.  Conclusion  The growth and aflatoxin production of A. flavus on buckwheat grains were at peak when stored at 28℃ on a medium with aw of 0.93.
Characteristics of nutrient and heavy metal contents in organic fertilizers in Fujian Province
LIU Lan-ying, HE Xiao-yun, HUANG Wei, CHEN Li-hua, LV Xin, TU Jie-feng, LUO Tu-yan
[Abstract](89) [FullText HTML](44) [PDF 604KB](1)
Abstract:
  Objective  In order to investigate the overall quality of organic fertilizer in Fujian province.  Method  About 50 representative samples of organic fertilizers were collected from 5 areas in Fujian, including Nanping, Zhangzhou, Longyan, Sanming and Fuzhou. The sampling periods were from July to September 2019, and contents of nutrients and heavy metals in organic fertilizers were investigated. The differences of nutrient and heavy metal contents in different types of fertilizers were also compared.  Result  According to the national standard of organic fertilizer NY 525—2012 in China, the unqualified rates of nutrient contents, including pH, organic matter, total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content, moisture content were 8%, 10%, 28% and 32% in the samples of this work. Although heavy metals, including Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg and As were detected in all organic fertilizers, they did not exceed the standard limit. As for fertilizers formed from different raw materials, the potassium and total nutrients (nitrogen+phosphorus+potassium) in bio-organic fertilizers were significantly higher than that of other organic fertilizers. Compared with other types of fertilizers, the content of heavy metals (except for Hg) in organic fertilizer formed from livestock manure was higher, while in bio-organic fertilizers was the lowest. As for fertilizers formed from different livestock manure as raw materials, the contents of nitrogen, phosphorus and total nutrients (nitrogen+phosphorus+potassium) in pig manure fertilizers were significantly higher than those in other organic manures. For heavy metals, relatively higher value of Cr was found in pig manure fertilizers, followed by chicken manure fertilizers and sheep manure fertilizers. The contents of Pb, Cd, Hg, and As were respectively higher for chicken manure fertilizers compared with other two types of fertilizers. Besides, the content of As in chicken manure fertilizer was significantly higher than that in sheep manure and pig manure.  Conclusion  Our results indicated that the heavy metal contents in organic fertilizers produced by major factories in Fujian did not beyond the limitation at present, but the nutrient contents in some samples did not meet the standard requirements. The proportion of water content exceeding the standard is high, and the problem of insufficient total nutrients is prominent. Special attention should be paid to the demand balance of total nutrients in organic fertilizers in actual production.
Optimization of Sialic Acid Extraction from Chicken Small Intestinal Mucosa by Response Surface Methodology
HU Yue-ming, SUN Gui-ju, YAO Hong-liang
[Abstract](53) [FullText HTML](31) [PDF 1226KB](0)
Abstract:
  Objective  Extraction process of chicken small intestine mucosal sialic acid was optimized, and new ideas for the development and reuse of broiler processing by-products were provided.  Method  The chicken intestinal mucosa was used as raw material, and the amount of sialic acid extracted was used as the index. Firstly, the single factor experiment was used to select the best acid in several commonly used sialic acid extracts, and further the three factors like extraction acid concentration, extraction time and liquid with material ratio were determined to influence the optimal range of sialic acid extraction. Based on the single factor experiment, the Box-Behnken test design method was used to optimize the design of three factors and three levels of response surface. A total of 17 experiments were performed, and each group of experiments was performed in parallel three times.The effects of three factors including citric acid concentration, extraction time and the ratio of liquid to material on the sialic acid extraction were investigated to determine the optimal process parameters for sialic acid extraction from chicken intestinal mucosa.  Result  The optimized extraction conditions of sialic acid were as follows: citric acid concentration 0.1 mol·L−1, extraction time 4 h, liquid-to- material ratio 32.20 1 (mL·g−1). Considering the simplicity of the actual operation, the results indicated that the optimized extraction conditions of sialic acid were as follows: citric acid concentration 0.1 mol·L−1, extraction time 4 h, liquid-to-material ratio 30 1 (mL·g−1). Under this condition, the amount of sialic acid extracted was (1010.39±21.87) μg·g−1, which was not significantly different from the predicted value of 1025.69 μg·g−1.  Conclusion  The response surface method was used to optimize the conditions of sialic acid extraction, which could improve the amount of extraction and provide a new idea for the reuse of chicken small intestine mucosa.
The differential gene expression profiling between leaves and roots of Sarcandra glabra based on transcriptome sequencing
CHE Su-rong, ZHANG Jia-yuan, LU Wei, QI Ke-ming, WEI Yi-cong
[Abstract](65) [FullText HTML](34) [PDF 1005KB](1)
Abstract:
  objective  Base on the gene expression level, the molecular mechanism of secondary metabolic differences between Sarcandra glabral leaves and roots were annlyzed preliminarily, which provides information for analyzing the molecular mechanism of the difference in effective components between its leaves and roots.  Methods  Using Sarcandra glabra samples from Fuzhou, Fujian Province, the transcriptome of leaves and roots of Sarcandra glabra were sequenced by Illumina HiSeqTM platform.. After filtration and Trinity assembly, the unigenes was compared with Nr, Nt, Pfam, KOG, Swiss-Prot, Kegg and GO by blast, and the differentially expressed genes of leaves and roots were analyzed, especially the differentially enriched genes in KEGG metabolic pathway were analyzed.  Results  More than 40 million clean reads were obtained by sequencing of transcriptome. and a total of 508271 unigenes were obtained by Trinity assembly with an average length of 740 bp. Based on blast analysis, a total of 148561 unigenes were successfully annotatedusing seven functional annotation databases, accounting for 58.80% of the total number of unigenes. Base on the difference of gene expression level, there were 29732 different expressions of unigenes identified between leaves and roots, among them,there were 12511 up-regulated unigenes and 17221 down-regulated unigenes. There were dozens of KEGG metabolic pathways with significant differences ] such as starch and sucrose metabolism, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms, phagosome, glutathione metabolism, photosynthesis, alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, sesquiterpenoid and triterpenoid biosynthesis, porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, circadian rhythm-plant, photosynthesis - antenna proteins, stilbenoid, diarylheptanoid and gingerol biosynthesis, biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, limonene and pinene degradation, carotenoid biosynthesis, diterpenoid biosynthesis, flavonoid biosynthesis, fatty acid elongation, etc. Among them, there are 193,82,40 and 35 differentially expressed genes in the secondary metabolic pathway, such as phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, sesquiterpene and triterpene biosynthesis, diterpene biosynthesis and flavonoid biosynthesis, which are closely related to pharmacodynamics,with up-regulating genes such as sesquiterpene synthase, ent-kaur-16-ene synthase, flavonol synthase/flavanone 3-hydroxylase, and down-regulating genes such as 8-hydroxygeraniol dehydrogenase, vinornine synthase and squalene synthaseare significantly different.  Conclusion  The genes related with phenylalanine sesquiterpenoid and triterpenoid, diterpenes, flavonoidsof secondary metabolic pathways were the most significant differences in Sarcandra glabra leaves and roots, and the key enzyme genes with significant differences provide important information by analyzing the molecular mechanisms of secondary metabolic differences between leaves and roots.
Improvement effects of straw returning and mixed purple soils on acidic soil and yield & quality of flue-cured tobacco
WEN Zhi-qiang, LIN A-dian, LIAO Qing, HUANG Zhen-rui, LI Ji-qin, LI Shu-ling
[Abstract](100) [FullText HTML](45) [PDF 680KB](4)
Abstract:
  Objective  Improvement effects of straw returning and mixed purple soils was studied to form efficient remediation technology of sandy acid soil and yield & quality of flue-cured tobacco.  Method  Field experiments were conducted to find the effects of the straw returning and mixed purple soils on physicochemical properties of soil, yield & quality of flue-cured tobacco, which were: no straw and purple soils added as control (T1,CK), straw returning (T2, 3 000 kg·hm−2), mixed purple soils (T3,225 m3·hm−2), straw returning (3 000 kg·hm−2)+ mixed purple soils (225 m3·hm−2) (T4).  Result  Treatments of straw returning and mixed purple soils could improve the soil physical properties. Compared with CK, the soil bulk density were decreased by 6.38%, 2.12% for T2 and T4,while the soil particle size composition transformed from clayey loam (CK) to loam (T2), silty loam (T3 and T4). Compared with CK, the soil pH, organic matter and Avail. N were significantly improved by T2; the soil pH and available potassium were increased by 1.43 and 19.98 mg·kg−1, respectively. The remarkable improvement of chemical properties of soil was T4, which the pH value, organic matter and available potassium content of tobacco planting soil were 1.21, 1.26 and 1.28 times higher than those of T1 (CK), respectively. Treatments of straw returning and mixed purple soils even could promote the growth of tobacco, improve the economic benefits and quality of flue-cured tobacco. The best effect on economic characteristics of tobacco, chemical composition coordination and sensory evaluation quality in grade C3F of flue-cured tobacco leaves was T4, the yield, output and the proportion of high quality of which increased by 35.04%, 20.64% and 38.59%,respectively.  Conclusion  The best improvement effects of acid soil was straw returning (3 000 kg·hm−2) cooperated with mixed purple soils (225 m3·hm−2). It can effectively improve the physical properties, pH value, organic matter and available potassium content of soil, then achieve economic returns from both sides of tobacco leaves’ yield & quality and the sustainable remediation of sandy acid soil.
Isolation, identification and degradation characteristics of a Malachite Green-degrader Citrobacter sp. D3
LIU Jing-hua, SUN Zhen-zhong, CHEN Lin
[Abstract](57) [FullText HTML](30) [PDF 1223KB](1)
Abstract:
  Objective  A strain that can degrade malachite green efficiently was screened.  Method  The method of enrichment and domestication was used to separate and screen the indigenous microorganisms in the fishery culture environment, degradation strain observed was identified by physiological and biochemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy and 16S rDNA analysis. The effects of temperature, pH and initial concentration of the drug on the degradation efficiency of the strain were studied by single factor experiment, and the kinetic parameters of degradation were analyzed. The comprehensive toxicity and degradation pathway of the degradation products were analyzed by luminescent bacteria method and high resolution mass spectrometer.  Result  The results showed that a malachite green degrading bacteria D3 isolated from a fish pond in Shanghai was identified as Citrobacter sp. Strain D3 had a good growth and degradation rate in the environment of pH 7~8 and temperature 30℃~35℃. Under this conditions, the degradation rate of malachite green with concentration of 2 mg L−1 was 96.32%, and the half-life was 0.563 0 d. The recessive malachite green metabolite of strain D3 had no obvious accumulation, and its growth and degradation were obviously inhibited when the concentration exceeds 30 mg ·L−1. The degradation of malachite green by bacteria can be described by the first-order kinetic equation, and the correlation coefficient of the fitting curve was 0.916 9~0.963 5. The comprehensive toxicity of the degradation products of malachite green decreased significantly, and the inhibition rate of the degradation products to Photobacteria decreased by more than 50% after 72 hours. Three characteristic degradation intermediates, 4-dimethylaminodiphenyl ketone (M / z = 226.122 6), N, N-dimethylaniline (M / z = 122.096 4) and 4-dimethylamino-phenol (M / z = 138.091 3), were obtained from the degradation products. It was speculated that the degradation process of malachite green by D3 strain was to remove benzene ring step by step to obtain secondary metabolites.  Conclusion  This strain had a high application value in solving malachite green residue in fishery ecology.
Identification of resistance and expression analysis of pathogenesis-related genes in rice early senescence and susceptible mutant w14
ZHU Yong-sheng, XU Jing, JIANG Jia-huang, ZHENG Yan-mei, CHEN Li-ping, CAI Qiu-hua, WANG Ai-rong, ZHANG Jian-fu
[Abstract](55) [FullText HTML](35) [PDF 954KB](4)
Abstract:
  Objective  Leaf early senescence affects the yield and quality of rice. Early senescence mutant is a good carrier to study the mechanism of rice senescence. Identifying and analyzing the phenotypic characteristics of early senescence mutant is beneficial to understand the inheritance of the mutant and lay a foundation for the cloning and function research of related genes.  Methods  Rice blast and bacterial blight resistance of mutant w14 were identified by artificial inoculation, and the early senescence phenotype of mutant w14 was identified by dark induction of leaves in vitro and determination of chlorophyll content. Then the expression of rice early senescence related genes and pathogenesis-related genes in early senescence mutant w14 and wild type japonica rice variety yunyin (abbreviated as‘YY’) were analyzed to study the types of early senescence of mutant w14 and the difference of defense system between wild type and mutant.  Results  After dark induction treatment for 24 h, the chlorophyll content of mutant w14 was 5% significantly lower than that of wild type YY, and the difference reached 1% significant level after dark induction treatment for 48 h. The expressions of SGR, Osh36, Osh69, PAO, NYC3 and RCCR1 in mutant w14 were significantly higher than those in wild-type YY. After inoculating rice bacterial blight and rice blast respectively, the mutant w14 was more susceptible to disease than wild-type YY, and pathogenesis-related genes PR1a, PR4, Cth1, PR1b, PBZ1 and PR3 were significantly up-regulated in mutant w14.  Conclusion  The mutant w14 more susceptible to rice blast and bacterial blight, and has typical phenotypes of senescence,. Compared with wild type, the expression of pathogenesis-related genes in mutants has changed significantly, that is, the change of defense system of mutants leads to the phenotype of disease susceptibility.
Preparation and Immunogenicity of Chimeric Nanoparticles Displaying Linear Epitopes of Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Mediated by MS2 Phage
WANG Guo-qiang, LI Xin-xin, SU Yun-fang, ZENG Hua-hui, MA Hong-fang, LIU Bao-guang, SHANG Li-zhi, Zhang Zhen-qiang
[Abstract](57) [FullText HTML](35) [PDF 1083KB](1)
Abstract:
  Objective  Using MS2 bacteriophage coat protein as a carrier, chimeric particles with a linear epitope of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus GP5 protein was constructed and immunogenicity was studied.  Method  The dominant neutralizing epitope gene sequence on GP5 was inserted into the MS2 bacteriophage coat protein gene by overlapping extension PCR, and recombinant vector was constructed to express the chimeric protein through a prokaryotic expression system. The target protein was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration chromatography, and the chimeric protein was characterized by dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy. The immunogenicity of the chimeric particles was studied by Western blotting and animal immunoassay.  Results  The linear epitope gene was successfully inserted into the target sequence, and the recombinant vector was constructed correctly. The purity was above 85%. The purified target protein self-assembles in vitro to form uniform chimeric epitopes nanoparticles with a diameter of 25 to 31 nm. After immunizing animals, the chimeric particles produce high-level antibodies that can react with inactivated viruses and has a good immunogenicity.  Conclusion  The MS2 phage coat protein allows the insertion of nine exogenous polypeptides (linear epitope on Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus GP5) and self-assembles in vitro to form chimeric virus-like particles. The particle displays the exogenous polypeptide on the surface and has good immunogenicity. The technology can lay the foundation for other epitopes or longer tandem epitopes of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome.
Study on extraction process of polyphenols from coffee (Coffea arabica L.) peel and its antioxidant actevities
WANG Yan-bing, KUANG Yu, LI Guo-ming, LIU Xiao-qiong, SU Lin-lin, WANG Xiao-yuan, LI Shou-ling
[Abstract](81) [FullText HTML](49) [PDF 1328KB](2)
Abstract:
  Objective  To optimize the extraction process of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) peel polyphenols and provide technical reference for it’s functional development and comprehensive utilization.  Method  Single factor and response surface test were used to optimize the ultrasonic assisted extraction of polyphenols from coffee peel. Meanwhile, the antioxidant capacity of polyphenols was studied in vitro.  Result  The optimum technology conditions of polyphenol from coffee peel were obtained as follows: solid-to-liquid ratio 1 54 (g mL), ethanol concentration 56%, extraction time and temperature was 42 min and 69℃. Under the above optimum conditions, the polyphenols content of coffee peel reached up to 34.68 ± 0.03 mg·g−1. IC50 of coffee peel polyphenols to 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical was 2.10 μg·mL−1, and those of to hydroxyl free radical and superoxide anion free radical was 314.97 μg·mL−1 and 322.02 μg·mL−1, respectively. The cleanrance ability was 0.99 times, 0.52 times and 0.12 times of L-ascorbic acid respectively.  Conclusion  The coffee peel polyphenols extracted by response surface optimization process have a certain antioxidant activity, and the extraction process is highly feasible. This study can provide a reference for the reuse of coffee processing waste.
2020, 35(5): 1-2.  
[Abstract](52) [FullText HTML](43) [PDF 275KB](1)
Abstract:
Crop Science
Development of Fragrant Japonica Rice by CRISPR/Cas9-targeted Editing on Badh2
WU Mingji, LIN Yan, LIU Huaqing, FU Yanping, SONG Yana, WANG Feng
2020, 35(5): 465-473.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.05.001
[Abstract](147) [FullText HTML](109) [PDF 1228KB](7)
Abstract:
  Objective  The CRISPR/Cas9 technology was applied to edit the Badh2 in rice to enrich the fragrance of current japonica varieties for marketing enhancement.  Method  A CRISPR/Cas9-BADH vector was constructed to transform 3 elite japonica rice, Longdao 18, Longdao 24, and Xiushui 134. The mutant badh2 was identified by sequencing, and potential off-target mutations examined. Contents of the aromatic 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) in the mutant rice cultivars was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  Result  Of the 30 T0 transgenic plants, 24 were found to contain the target mutant badh2, of which, 53.3% were heterozygous, 16.67% homozygous, and 10% bi-allelic. Seven homozygous mutation genotypes were obtained in the T1 non-transgenic mutant plants. There was no off-target mutation detected at all 5 potential sites indicating that a high specificity of the designed sgRNA for the predicted site. Interferences by the varied genome backgrounds of the rice varieties might have caused the significantly varied amounts of the aromatic 2AP detected in all badh2 frame-shift mutant rice.  Conclusion  The CRISPR/Cas9 technology could effectively induce desired Badh2 mutation in rice. Improvement on the fragrance for 3 japonica rice could lead to wide applications in cultivating new varieties with added commercial value. More interestingly, the significant variations on 2AP content among the mutant rice as discovered in this study would help further the understanding on the genetics associated with aroma rice breeding.
Characterization of OsBI-1L-8 Promoter in Oryza sativa L.
CHEN Rui, YU Fake, LI Qingxian, SHAN Zhen
2020, 35(5): 474-479.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.05.002
[Abstract](152) [FullText HTML](98) [PDF 1714KB](7)
Abstract:
  Objective  Structure and function of OsBI-1L-8 promoter were studied to decipher the mechanism of OsBI-1L genetic family involved in the life of Oryza sativa L.  Method  Length of pOsBI-1L-8 was predicted using the online software BDGP, Softberry, and Promoter 2.0. The cis-acting regulatory elements of pOsBI-1L-8 isolated from the genomic DNA of Nipponbare were analyzed based on the PlantCARE database. The pOsBI-1L-8::GUS vector was then constructed and transformed into rice callus, and spatiotemporal expression characterization by histochemical staining.  Result  The length of pOsBI-1L-8 was determined to be 1 258 bp by the predictive analysis and PCR amplification. The region consisted of several cis elements associated with light signal, response to anaerobic stress, and hormone regulation. The GUS reporter gene driven by pOsBI-1L-8 was expressed only during the heading period at the stem-stem junctions, root-stem junctions, and stamens.  Conclusion  pOsBI-1L-8 was a tissue-specific promoter. OsBI-1L-8 gene was postulated to play an important role in the growth and stamen development of a rice plant.
Recommended NPK and Organic Fertilizer Applications for Peanut Farming in Fujian
LI Juan, ZHANG Licheng, ZHANG Hua, ZHANG Mingqing, YAO Baoquan
2020, 35(5): 480-488.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.05.003
[Abstract](599) [FullText HTML](306) [PDF 615KB](5)
Abstract:
  Objective  Derived from fertilization models, utilization of organic fertilizers to partially replace NPK for peanut farming in Fujian was investigated.  Method  In the major peanut producing areas in Fujian, 105 field experiments were conducted in recent years to examine the response of peanut plants to NPK fertilization. Applying the systematic cluster analysis combined with significant test of difference, various fertilization categories for the planting fields were established. A ternary non-structural fertilizer response model was constructed to arrive at recommend fertilizations for each category. Based on the models, field experiments were carried out to test replacement of NPK with an organic fertilizer.  Result  According to the significant differences on effectiveness of NPK fertilizations, 4 categories of peanut fields were generated as (1) high yield paddy, (2) medium yield paddy, (3) medium-to-low yield field, and (4) low yield field. To maximize the fertilization effect and peanut yield for the fields, 4 optimized models were formulated to obtain the recommended NPK applications. In 34 controlled field experiments, on average, a 10.2% yield increase over the conventional practice was realized by following the recommendation of the models. Meanwhile, although the usage of N decreased 24.9% and of P 38.1%, that of K increased 79.3%. Financially, the cost on fertilizer was reduced to 63 yuan·hm−2 and the net revenue increased to 2 877 yuan·hm−2. Furthermore, by replacing 25% of NPK with a commercial organic fertilizer resulted in the highest peanut yield among all treatments. The substitution increased peanut yield by 10.6% and revenue by 1 595 yuan·hm−2over the recommended NPK application.  Conclusion  It appeared that a 25% replacement of NPK with the organic fertilizer based on the recommended fertilization could be most profitable for the peanut farming in Fujian.
Breeding and Cultivation of a New High-yield, High-quality Mindou 7 Soybean for Fresh Bean Consumption
ZHANG Yumei, LAN Xinlong, CHEN Wei, XU Rirong, CHEN Hao, CHEN Xiangyu, TENG Zhenyong, LU Peilan, HU Runfang, LIN Guoqiang
2020, 35(5): 489-494.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.05.004
[Abstract](143) [FullText HTML](81) [PDF 634KB](6)
Abstract:
  Objective  A new high-yield, high-quality soybean variety for fresh bean consumption was bred through sexual hybridization of pedigrees and cultivated in regional trials to determine production performances.  Method  Hybridized by using Fuxian 5 as the female parent and Yundou 9 as the male parent, a pedigree line coded 08B3-1 was generated. In the spring of 2013 trial, the newly bred variety demonstrated yield traits and bean quality significantly higher than those of the reference, Maodou 3. It was then named Mindou 7 and submitted for demonstration in the annual regional trials in the province on new soybean varieties for fresh bean consumption.  Result  In the 2013 trial, Mindou 7 showed an average fresh pod yield of 11 459.40 kg·hm−2, which was 2.25% higher than that of Maodou 3. In the subsequent provincial regional trials in 2015 and 2016, it delivered an average fresh pod yield of 9 625.50 kg·hm−2, which was 1.76% higher than that of Maodou 3. Again, in 2017, the yield was 9 780.45 kg·hm−2, impressively 5.68% higher than that of control. The new variety was approved and released by the Fujian Provincial Committee of Crop Variety Identification in April 2018.  Conclusion  The mid-season-maturation Mindou 7, with its large pods and beans, palatable taste and flavor as well as tender texture after cooking, was considered a premium variety for fresh soybean consumption and suitable for spring planting in Fujian.
Horticultural Science
Cloning and Expression of Squalene Monooxygenase Genes of Dendrobium officinale
LIN Jiangbo, WANG Weiying, ZOU Hui, DAI Yimin
2020, 35(5): 495-502.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.05.005
[Abstract](45) [FullText HTML](34) [PDF 880KB](3)
Abstract:
  Objective  The SQE genes of Dendrobium officinale associated with the key enzyme involving in the sterol biosynthesis, squalene monooxygenase, were cloned for bioinformatics analysis and determination of their expressions in the stems and leaves of the orchid plant at different growth stages.  Method  The 3'RACE primers of DoSQE1 and DoSQE2 were designed based on SQE fragment with the 5' terminal from the transcriptome data of D. officinale. The full lengths cDNAs of DoSQE1 and DoSQE2 were cloned and a bioinformatics analysis carried out. Expressions of the genes in the stems and leaves in August, October and December were detected by qRT-PCR.  Result  The full-length of DoSQE1 was 1 796bp (GenBank accession MT160182) containing an 1 554 bp ORF encoding 517 amino acids (aa) and that of DoSQE2 1 963 bp (GenBank accession MT160183) containing an 1 578 bp ORF encoding 525 aa. DoSQE1 had two transmembrane regions at 4–22 aa and 55–72 aa, while DoSQE2 had only one transmembrane region at 5–23 aa. DoSQE1 contained a squalene epoxidase domain at 204–476 aa, and DoSQE2 at 211–484 aa. The phylogenetic analysis showed DoSQE1 to be closely related to SQE of Phalaenopsis equestris (XP_020599860.1), and DoSQE2 to that of Phalaenopsis equestris (XP_020579136.1). Their gene expressions were detected in the stems as well as the leaves by qRT-PCR with the expression in the leaves significantly higher than that in the stems. And, the expression of DoSQE1 peaked in August, whereas, that of DoSQE2 in October.  Conclusion  DoSQE1 and DoSQE2 were successfully cloned for the study that showed differences in their expressions. The information obtained would lead to further investigation on the biosynthesis mechanism and metabolic regulation of sterols in D. officinale.
Transferability and Polymorphism of Cymbidium Hybrid EST-SSR Markers in Chinese Cymbidium Cultivars
LIN Rongyan, CHEN Yiquan, ZHONG Huaiqin, WU Jianshe, LIN Bing
2020, 35(5): 503-508.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.05.006
[Abstract](226) [FullText HTML](131) [PDF 646KB](4)
Abstract:
  Objective  Cymbidium hybrid EST-SSR markers were studied to determine their transferability for applications on the cultivar identification and germplasm utilization of Chinese cymbidium cultivars.  Method  Genetic diversity of 240 pairs EST-SSR primers in 44 cultivars of Cymbidium goeringii, C. ensifolium, C. sinense and others were analyzed, and their transferability among Chinese cymbidium cultivars examined.  Result  The rates of transferability were found to be 67.92% for C. goeringii, 66.25% for C. ensifolium, and 71.25% for C. sinense. Among the markers, 17 EST-SSR primer pairs were selected to study the molecular phylogeny of the 44 cultivars. Out of them, 10 primer pairs showed polymorphisms with expanded 52 bands. The bands numbered between 3 to 9 with a range of polymorphism information content between 0.504 and 0.850. These cultivars were clustered into 4 groups, same as concluded by the conventional botanical classification.  Conclusion  The Cymbidium hybrid EST-SSR markers selected from this study effectively showed the molecular genetic diversity of the various Chinese cymbidium cultivars.
Effects of Fungal Addition and Fertilizer Usage on Physiology and Biochemistry of Rhododendron simsii Seedlings
YANG Shuting, OU Jing, LI Linpan, HE Yuejun
2020, 35(5): 509-518.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.05.007
[Abstract](814) [FullText HTML](418) [PDF 708KB](4)
Abstract:
  Objective  Responses of azalea (Rhododendron simsii) seedlings cultivated under the applications of fungi and NPK fertilizer were studied.  Method  Various fungal additions and NPK fertilizations were applied in cultivating 2-year-old azalea seedlings. The fungal treatments included Rhododendron mycorrhizae (J1), mixture of R. mycorrhizae and exophytic Pinus massoniana (J2), and blank control (J3). The fertilization was varied on the rate of application. Physiology and biochemistry of the azalea seedlings grown under the treatments were determined. Seedling biomass, chlorophyll (Chl) content, and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT), as well as contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), soluble protein (SP), soluble sugar (SS), auxin (IAA), cytokinin (ZR), gibberellic acid (GA3), and abscisic acid (ABA) of the plants were measured and subjected to a principal component analysis.  Results  The fungal additions increased the contents of Chla, Chlb, total Chl, SP, IAA, ZR, and GA3 as well as the activities of SOD, POD, and CAT, but reduced the MDA content in the seedlings. The addition, especially J2 treatment, allowed the seedlings to performed well physiologically with merely 1/4 to 1/2 of the normally applied amount of NPK fertilizer. It was speculated that the mycorrhizal symbiosis as observed might be the result of the improved nutrient absorption, photosynthesis, hormone synthesis, protective enzyme activity, stress resistance, and growth of, as well as the reduced membrane lipid peroxidation in the plants. It appeared that all indicators selected for this study were correlated.  Conclusion  The overall physiological and biochemical indicators on the azalea seedlings cultivated with the fungal applications were better than those of control. In particular, the treatment of J2 not only reduced the NPK fertilization by half (i.e., urea 1.1 g ·plant−1, CaMgP 1 g·plant−1, and KCl 0.7 g KCl·pllant−1) but also elevated the levels of Chl, SOD, SP, IAA, and GA3 on the azalea seedlings.
Effects of Limb Retention on Apple Trees Pruned to Tall-spindle Shape on Fruit Yield and Quality
WANG Hongning, SUN Junbao, NIU Zimian, ZHANG Shengzhi, WU Xiaoxuan
2020, 35(5): 519-524.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.05.008
[Abstract](177) [FullText HTML](72) [PDF 684KB](4)
Abstract:
  Objective  The optimum amount of limbs to be retained on an apple tree pruned to a tall-spindle shape that would result in high-yield of quality fruits was investigated.  Method  Effects of the amount of saved limbs after pruning on fruit yield and quality of 5–7 years old dwarf apple trees were determined.  Result  The average fruit yield per apply plant increased, and then declined, with increasing number of limbs retained, within a range, after the pruning. The yield peaked when 25 main branches were saved, while the individual fruit weight maximized when 23–24 limbs remained on a plant. The greatest total soluble solids (TSS) and anthocyanin contents in the apples were found on the trees with 23–25 limbs retained and decreased as the number of the limbs increased. The correlations between the limb retention and those indicators were significant with coefficients ranging between −0.721 and −0.964.  Conclusion  Taking the yield per plant as well as the individual fruit weight, TSS, and total anthocyanin of apples into consideration, a 5–7 years old dwarf tree could be pruned onto a tall-spindle shape with 24.29 limbs remaining to achieve maximized results.
Effects of Slow-release Fertilizer on Yield and Quality of Oolong Tea under Reduced Nitrogen Fertilization
HUANG Yibiao, HU Zebo, LIN Yanping, ZHNAG Jianming, WANG Feiquan, YIN Yingwu, JIN Riliang, CHEN Rongbing
2020, 35(5): 525-531.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.05.009
[Abstract](44) [FullText HTML](28) [PDF 732KB](6)
Abstract:
  Objective  Effects of using a slow-release fertilizer to reduce nitrogen (N) demand on the yield and quality of oolong tea were studied for efficient fertilization at plantations.  Method  Wuyi rock tea, Huangguanyin, bushes were planted under various fertilization treatments including no N fertilizer (CK1), conventional application (CK2), and a slow-release fertilizer with 10% (T1), 20% (T2), 30% (T3) or 40% (T4) N reduction. Yield of fresh leaves per plant and quality of the oolong tea made were determined.  Result  Compared with CK1, the use of the slow-release fertilizer increased the organic matters and pH in soil as well as the contents of N and amino acids in leaves, yield, and SPAD of the plants. The leaf yields under CK2, T1 and T2 did not differ significantly. But, in comparison to CK2, T1 resulted in 4.01% higher on soil organic matters, 5.82% lower on pH, 10.11% greater on amino acid content in tea leaves, and 10.11% lower on polyphenols/amino acid ratio; while T2 rendered 3.10% higher on soil organic matters, 2.41% lower on pH, 9.04% greater on amino acid content in tea leaves, and 5.57% lower on polyphenols/amino acid ratio. A principal component analysis on these criteria showed the top two principal components contributed 95.20% of the total. The scores on the components differed significantly with those for T1 to be 4.418 on the top first component and 1.092 on the second component; and those for T2, 2.038 on the first component and 0.731 on the second component.  Conclusion  By using the slow-release fertilizer to replace 10% or 20% N, both yield and quality of oolong tea were improved.
Growth and Quality of Ganoderma lucidum at Tea Plantations under Relay Cropping
LIN Zhongning, LU Zheng, LIN Yi, LI Yanchun, LIU Mingxiang
2020, 35(5): 532-537.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.05.010
[Abstract](110) [FullText HTML](148) [PDF 568KB](3)
Abstract:
  Objective  Growth and quality of Ganoderma lucidum cultivated at fields under varied relay cropping methods were evaluated for the planting practice at tea plantations.  Method  Under the vertical and horizontal cultivation modes of relay cropping, G. lucidum were grown to compare with the conventional greenhouse cultivation. The growth, commercial properties, and quality of the fungi were compared.  Result  Under the relay cropping, G. lucidum grew to maturity, released spores, and gave commercial appearance similarly to the greenhouse cultivation. However, compared to the conventional planting, the vertical relay cropping method required 25 d longer to reach maturation with a significantly reduced germination rate by 12.8% and the biotransformation rate by 10.48%; while the horizontal method caused a 18 d delay in maturation with significantly declined rates of germination by 14.5% and biotransformation by 4.49%. On the other hand, the contents of polysaccharides, total triterpenes, and amino acids in G. lucidum were with no significant difference with the greenhouse cultivation. The polysaccharide content of the vertical relay cropped G. lucidum was 1.09%, which was a 9.90% higher than that of control; and, that of the horizontal relay cropped G. lucidum was 1.08%, which was a 9.29% higher. The vertical relay cropping produced 1.19% triterpenes in the fruiting body, which was an increase of 11.48% over control; while the horizontal cultivation delivered 1.21% with an increase of 13.55% over control.  Conclusion  Although relay cropping G. lucidum with tea bushes in a plantation hindered the growth of the fungi with somewhat reduced commercial appeal, it improved the quality of the fungal product.
Plant Protection
Fungi for Controlling Soft-rot Disease on Taro
DONG Xiaofei, YE Zuyun, LIU Yuhong, HUANG Linrong, LI Shan
2020, 35(5): 538-544.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.05.011
[Abstract](135) [FullText HTML](77) [PDF 1164KB](4)
Abstract:
  Objective  Various fungi with a potential to be used for controlling the soft-rot disease on Fuding taro, Colocasia esculenta L. var. comosus Chang, were investigated.  Method  Twenty-two fungal strains were isolated from rhizosphere soil and corms of healthy taro plants. Nine of them showing an in vitro antagonistic effect on the disease were selected. Molecular sequencing, morphological observation, physiological and biochemical characterization in the laboratory as well as a field test were conducted on them to screen for applicable candidates.  Result  Fungal strains under the coded names of CAF-H001 and CAF-L002 exhibited a desirable control effect on taro in the laboratory. The ITS1/ITS4 sequences of the two strains were amplified and compared with NCBI database to show a 100% homogeny of CAF-H001 with Fusarium fujikuroi and of CAF-L002 with Aspergillus tubingensis. CAF-H001 had white mycelia and sickle-shape conidia that grew optimally at pH 9 and 28℃ on starch for carbon and peptone for nitrogen sources. Whereas, CAF-L002 had black mycelia and spherical conidia that preferred pH 8, 32℃, starch, and yeast extract.  Conclusion  It appeared that CAF-H001, Fusarium fujikuroi and CAF-L002, Aspergillus tubingensis, could potentially be applied for controlling the soft-rot disease on taro.
Growth and Development of Leptocybe invasa as Affected by Environmental Temperature
CHEN Yuansheng, LI Xin, DENG Biping
2020, 35(5): 545-551.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.05.012
[Abstract](133) [FullText HTML](76) [PDF 660KB](3)
Abstract:
  Objective  Correlations between the growth, reproduction, and distribution of Leptocybe invasa, an insect that causes galls in plants, and the surrounding temperature were studied to facilitate the monitoring and controlling the spread of the pest wasp.  Method  Duration and speed of each development state of the wasp were measured by inoculating and feeding the larvae indoor at 19, 22, 25, 28 and 31℃. Graphic, linear, and logistic regression analyses were applied to establish the correlations. Threshold and effective temperatures for the emergences of various stages of the insect were obtained using a linear regression model.  Result  Temperature was found to significantly affect not only at the stage from egg to pupa, but also the entire development and adult life of the insect. The increasing temperature hastened the insect development process. The graphic linear regression model seemed to more accurately describe their correlation than the other models. In Gannan, Jiangxi, the threshold emergence temperature of the eggs was found to be 10.78℃; that of the larva, 10.29℃; that of the pupa, 14.64℃; the adult survival threshold temperature, 14.73℃; and, the temperature for the development of an entire generation, 12.68℃. The accumulated effective temperature for the eggs was found to be 86.96℃; that for the larva, 588.24℃; that for the pupa, 92.59℃; that for the adult survival, 104.17℃; and, that for the development of an entire generation, 712.34 d·℃. And, the optimum temperature for the egg development, 25.68℃; for the larvae, 25.65℃; for the pupa, 24.58℃; for the adult survival, 26.42℃; and, for the development of an entire generation, 23.84℃ with a range between 12.21℃ and 35.48℃. The model estimated 4.27 generations of L. invasa had taken place between 2017 and 2019 which was in agreement with what was observed in the field.  Conclusion  Temperature was critical for the development of L. invasa. Understanding the correlation would aid in predicting the development, infestation time and area, and emerging generations of L. invasa for effective control of the pest.
Resources and Environmental Science
Effects of Hydrothermal Carbonization Time on Chemistry and Microstructure of Biochar Made from Miscanthus floridulus
REN Lihua, YE Jing, YANG Dongxue, WENG Boqi, WANG Yixiang
2020, 35(5): 552-559.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.05.013
[Abstract](126) [FullText HTML](67) [PDF 850KB](5)
Abstract:
  Objective  The heating time in a hydrothermal carbonization process used to convert Miscanthus floridulus into biochar was varied to examine the chemical and microstructural differences in the resulting material for potential applications.  Method  An experiment applying 200℃ hydrothermal carbonization on the perennial grass in a pressurized reaction cauldron for 0, 1.5, 3.0, 6.0, and 9.0 h was conducted. Properties including organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, C/N ratio, ash, pH, yield, and loss of elements of the biochar were determined, and microstructure observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM).   Results  After the carbonization, the biochar had an organic carbon content ranging from 39.90% to 54.82%, a C/N ratio from 57.90 to 81.22, and a yield from 57.3% to 67.1%. The longer the treatment time, the higher the organic carbon, total nitrogen, C/N ratio, carbon loss, phosphorus loss and ash loss were in the biochar. The total phosphorus, total ash, pH and yield decreased as well. The rate of nitrogen loss peaked after 6 h of carbonization but was significantly lower at 9 h compared with other treatment time. Under SEM, the biochar appeared with numerous starch particles. Prolonged carbonization significantly charred the surface with disorganized, thickened, and stacked tissues. Most of the vascular bundles was damaged, the thin-walled cells blocked, and the edges thickened with clear outlines. The starch granules began to slacken followed by the appearance of many irregular-shaped or ellipsoidal microspheres that coalesced and fused together.  Conclusion  The hydrothermal carbonization converted M. floridulus into biochar with changed chemistry and microstructure. Prolonged heating decreased the yield, pH, carbon, and phosphorus in the material. A carbonization time longer than 3 h could already significantly alter the properties of the biochar as observed under the experimental conditions.
Microbial Communities in Rhizosphere and Root-Endosphere of Wild Cymbidium ensifolium
XIE Taixiang, ZHANG Qinghua, ZHOU Jie, CHEN Juan, MA Shanhu, AI Ye
2020, 35(5): 560-568.   doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2020.05.014
[Abstract](119) [FullText HTML](62) [PDF 1185KB](3)
Abstract:
  Objective  Community diversity and structures of the bacteria in the rhizosphere and endosphere of wild Cymbidium ensifolium were studied to understand the symbiotic relationship between them.  Method  The high-throughput sequencing method was applied to identify the bacteria in the rhizosphere soil and the root-endosphere of C. ensifolium at locations in Mt. Gushan, Fuzhou where the wild orchids were found. Species diversity and community structures of the spheres were compared.  Result  Numerous species of bacteria were found in the specimens. The Simpson index in the rhizosphere soil was determined to be of 0.99, and that in the root-endosphere 0.95. The Shannon indices indicated that the rhizosphere was significantly more diverse on species than the root-endosphere. There were 10 phyla of bacteria in the rhizosphere with the dominant ones being Proteobacteria (60.5%), Acidobacteria (20.5%), and Actinobacteria (15.3%). In the root-endosphere, the prevailing phyla were Proteobacteria (75.3%), Acidobacteria (7.3%), and Actinobacteria (14.6%). Among the 10 bacterial genera in the highest abundance, Solibacter and Acidipila existed only in the rhizosphere, while Dyella, Novosphingobium, and Granulicella only in the root-endosphere. The abundance of Acidobacteria Acidobacteriia bacteria in the rhizosphere were significantly higher than those in the root-endosphere. Of the 11 significantly different orders, only Enterobacteriales showed a greater abundance in the root-endosphere than in the rhizosphere. There were 12 genera significantly more abundant in the rhizosphere than in the root-endosphere.  Conclusion  The significantly different microbial community diversity and structures in the field rhizosphere and root-endosphere of wild C. ensifolium grown at the same area might reflect a highly complex synergism between the environment and the plants.
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