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啤酒糟替代饲粮中不同比例精料对湖羊瘤胃发酵及微生物多样性的影响

王迎港 张富 吴贤锋 林云琴 李文杨 刘远 刘庆华

王迎港,张富,吴贤锋,等. 啤酒糟替代饲粮中不同比例精料对湖羊瘤胃发酵及微生物多样性的影响 [J]. 福建农业学报,2023,38(3):262−270 doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.03.002
引用本文: 王迎港,张富,吴贤锋,等. 啤酒糟替代饲粮中不同比例精料对湖羊瘤胃发酵及微生物多样性的影响 [J]. 福建农业学报,2023,38(3):262−270 doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.03.002
WANG Y G, ZHANG F, WU X F, et al. Effects of Substituting Refined Forage with Beer Lees on Digestion and Microbial Diversity of Hu Sheep Rumen [J]. Fujian Journal of Agricultural Sciences,2023,38(3):262−270 doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.03.002
Citation: WANG Y G, ZHANG F, WU X F, et al. Effects of Substituting Refined Forage with Beer Lees on Digestion and Microbial Diversity of Hu Sheep Rumen [J]. Fujian Journal of Agricultural Sciences,2023,38(3):262−270 doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.03.002

啤酒糟替代饲粮中不同比例精料对湖羊瘤胃发酵及微生物多样性的影响

doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.03.002
基金项目: 福建省科技计划公益类专项(2020R10260014、2022R10260015);福建省农业高质量发展超越“5511”协同创新工程项目(XTCXGC2021008);福建省农业科学院科技创新团队建设项目(CXTD2021006-2);福建省农业科学院引导性科技创新项目(YDXM202207)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    王迎港(1997−),男,硕士,研究方向:动物饲料与营养(E-mail:1261184431@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    刘远(1985−),男,副研究员,研究方向:地方山羊品种种质特性及营养需要量研究(E-mail: seayuan521@163.com

    刘庆华(1970−),男,博士,副教授,硕士生导师,研究方向:动物饲料与营养(E-mail: 83793089@163.com

  • 中图分类号: S816.4

Effects of Substituting Refined Forage with Beer Lees on Digestion and Microbial Diversity of Hu Sheep Rumen

  • 摘要:   目的  研究啤酒糟替代饲粮中不同比例精料对湖羊瘤胃发酵及微生物多样性的影响,促进啤酒糟在湖羊饲养中的合理利用。  方法  选择体况良好、相近体重(15.90±0.36 kg)的湖羊24只,随机分为4组,分别为饲喂基础饲粮(玉米+豆粕为精料,占比36%,Ⅰ组,CK)及啤酒糟替代1/3(Ⅱ组)、2/3(Ⅲ组)和全部(Ⅳ组)基础饲粮中精料。试验结束后,每组随机选取3只羊,测定羊瘤胃发酵参数和瘤胃微生物多样性。  结果  1)啤酒糟替代饲粮中不同比例精料对湖羊瘤胃的pH值、氨态氮、乙酸等挥发性脂肪酸的含量无显著影响(P>0.05),试验Ⅱ组的异丁酸含量显著高于其他试验组(P<0.05)。2)在门水平上,啤酒糟替代饲粮中不同比例精料对湖羊瘤胃微生物厚壁菌门(Firmicutes)、拟杆菌门(Bacteroidetes)、变形菌门(Proteobacteria)、互养菌门(Synergistetes)、纤维杆菌门(Fibrobacteres)、放线菌门(Actinobacteria)、变形杆菌门(Epsilonbacteraeota)、螺旋体门(Spirochaetes)和无壁菌门(Tenericutes)的丰富度均无显著影响(P>0.05)。试验Ⅰ组(CK)中疣微菌门(Verrucomicrobia)的丰富度显著低于其他组(P<0.05)。在属水平上,啤酒糟替代饲粮中不同比例精料对湖羊瘤胃微生物普雷沃氏菌属(Prevotella)、琥珀酸菌属(Succiniclasticum)、肠单胞菌属(Intestinimonas)、酪氨酸菌属(Tyzzerella)、瘤胃球菌属(Ruminococcus)、粪便菌属(Faecalicatena)、假丁酸弧菌属(Pseudobutyrivibrio)和特氏梭菌属(Hungateiclostridium)的丰富度无显著影响(P>0.05)。  结论  啤酒糟替代精料提高了疣微菌门的相对丰富度,未对湖羊其他瘤胃群落结构和瘤胃微生物群落丰富度产生显著影响。
  • 表  1  基础饲粮成分及营养水平(干物质基础)

    Table  1.   Nutritional composition of basal diet (DM basis)

    项目
    Items
    试验Ⅰ组
    Group Ⅰ
    试验Ⅱ组
    Group Ⅱ
    试验Ⅲ组
    Group Ⅲ
    试验Ⅳ组
    Group Ⅳ
    原料 Ingredients
    啤酒糟 Brewers dried grain/% 0.00 12.00 24.00 36.00
    玉米 Corn/% 24.00 16.00 8.00 0.00
    豆粕 Soybean meal/% 12.00 8.00 4.00 0.00
    谷壳粉 Chaff bran/% 9.00 9.00 9.00 9.00
    杂交狼尾草 Hybrid penisetum/% 51.50 51.50 51.50 51.50
    磷酸氢钙 CaHPO4/% 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
    石粉 Limestone/% 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50
    食盐 NaCl/% 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
    预混料 Premix1)/% 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
    合计 Total/% 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
    营养水平 Nutrient levels2)
    有机物 OM/% 90.18 90.12 90.11 89.75
    代谢能 ME/(MJ·kg−1 9.52 9.19 8.56 8.14
    总能 GE/(MJ·kg−1 17.00 16.80 16.68 16.56
    中性洗涤纤维 NDF/% 46.98 49.38 54.07 57.13
    酸性洗涤纤维 ADF/% 26.54 28.91 30.20 30.71
    粗蛋白质 CP/% 12.20 12.60 13.27 13.71
    钙 Ca/% 0.77 0.78 0.81 0.83
    总磷 TP/% 0.23 0.24 0.24 0.25
    1)每千克饲粮预混料中含有Cu 20.0 mg,Fe 80.0 mg,Mn 30.0 mg,Zn 80.0 mg,I 1 mg,Se 0.30 mg,VA 20 000 IU,VD 5 000 IU,VE 50.0 mg。2)代谢能为计算值,其他均为实测值。
    1) The premix provid the following per kg of diets: Cu 20.0 mg, Fe 80.0 mg, Mn 30.0 mg, Zn 80.0 mg, I 1 mg, Se 0.30 mg, VA 20 000 IU, VD 5 000 IU, VE 50.0 mg. 2)ME is calculated, others are measured values.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  啤酒糟替代饲粮中不同比例精料对湖羊瘤胃发酵参数的影响

    Table  2.   Effects of different forages on Hu sheep rumen digestion indicators

    项目      
    Items      
    试验Ⅰ组
    Group Ⅰ
    试验Ⅱ组
    Group Ⅱ
    试验Ⅲ组
    Group Ⅲ
    试验Ⅳ组
    Group Ⅳ
    pH值 pH value 6.73±0.005 6.99±0.06 6.79±0.07 6.85±0.009
    氨态氮 NH3-N/(mg·dL−1 9.40±0.45 9.83±0.54 10.50±0.50 10.97±1.02
    乙酸 Acetate/(mmoL·L−1 47.35±3.52 49.31±3.68 51.79±3.86 50.97±3.89
    丙酸 Propionate/(mmoL·L−1 20.53±1.69 21.71±1.72 22.51±2.35 20.57±3.20
    异丁酸 Isobutyrate/(mmoL·L−1 4.12±0.85 b 6.74±0.71 a 2.47±0.80 b 3.60±0.95 b
    丁酸 Butyrate/(mmoL·L−1 15.84±2.05 16.34±3.56 18.36±1.20 17.59±1.07
    异戊酸 Isovalerate/(mmoL·L−1 3.60±1.01 6.48±2.56 5.22±2.20 3.78±2.60
    戊酸 Valerate/(mmoL·L−1 1.03±0.35 1.56±0.23 1.66±0.39 1.30±0.42
    乙酸/丙酸 Acetate/Propionate 2.33±0.20 2.27±0.23 2.31±0.25 2.57±0.24
    同行数据后不同小写字母表示差异显著(P<0.05)。下表同。
    In the same row, data with different lowercase letters indicate significant differences(P>0.05). The same as below.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  啤酒糟替代饲粮中不同比例精料对湖羊瘤胃真菌Alpha多样性指数的影响

    Table  3.   Effects of different forages on fungal alpha diversity index of Hu sheep rumen

    项目
    Items
    试验Ⅰ组
    Group Ⅰ
    试验Ⅱ组
    GroupⅡ
    试验Ⅲ组
    Group Ⅲ
    试验Ⅳ组
    Group Ⅳ
    Shannon指数 Shannon index 7.985±0.062 b 7.932±0.060 b 8.012±0.073 b 8.489±0.059 a
    Simpson指数 Simpson index 0.9887±0.002 0.9886±0.003 0.9851±0.002 0.9917±0.002
    Chao1指数 Chao1 index 851.228±51.106 b 805.601±50.205 b 1056.283±61.488 a 1191.569±58. 476 a
    Ace指数 Ace index 929.949±57.366 bc 791.286±48.859 c 1092.112±48.547 ab 1146.678±46.839 a
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  啤酒糟替代饲粮中不同比例精料处理湖羊瘤胃微生物门水平上菌群丰富度

    Table  4.   Effects of different forages on microbiota richness at phylum level of Hu sheep rumen   (单位: %)

    项目
    Items
    试验Ⅰ组
    Group Ⅰ
    试验Ⅱ组
    Group Ⅱ
    试验Ⅲ组
    Group Ⅲ
    试验Ⅳ组
    Group Ⅳ
    厚壁菌门 Firmicutes 29.86±6.23 37.44±5.61 51.27±8.62 40.58±6.51
    拟杆菌门 Bacteroidetes 18.10±3.23 15.76±4.10 11.89±4.28 14.56±3.87
    变形菌门 Proteobacteria 1.43±0.23 0.59±0.39 0.86±0.51 0.43±0.21
    互养菌门 Synergistetes 1.27±0.20 0.37±0.02 0.18±0.06 0.73±0.25
    纤维杆菌门 Fibrobacteres 0.06±0.01 0.78±0.21 0.08±0.02 0.06±0.01
    放线菌门 Actinobacteria 0.03±0.01 0.27±0.22 0.15±0.10 0.46±0.20
    变形杆菌门 Epsilonbacteraeota 0.087±0.012 0.009±0.001 0.388±0.021 0.001±0.001
    螺旋体门 Spirochaetes 0.195±0.052 0.044±0.068 0.080±0.058 0.124±0.060
    无壁菌门 Tenericutes 0.008±0.034 0.052±0.038 0.019±0.032 0.026±0.045
    疣微菌门 Verrucomicrobia 0.002±0.002 c 0.026±0.003 a 0.011±0.002 bc 0.017±0.005 ab
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  啤酒糟替代饲粮中不同比例精料处理湖羊瘤胃微生物属水平上菌群丰富度

    Table  5.   Effects of different forages on microbiota richness at genus level of Hu sheep rumen  (单位: %)

    项目
    Items
    试验Ⅰ组
    Group Ⅰ
    试验Ⅱ组
    GroupⅡ
    试验Ⅲ组
    Group Ⅲ
    试验Ⅳ组
    Group Ⅳ
    普雷沃氏菌属 Prevotella 17.94±3.95 15.68±3.94 10.61±3.95 14.46±3.95
    琥珀酸菌属 Succiniclasticum 4.24±1.87 2.37±1.64 6.68±1.34 9.21±1.52
    肠单胞菌属 Intestinimonas 3.34±1.82 4.43±1.42 4.67±2.10 6.62±2.87
    酪氨酸菌属 Tyzzerella 4.07±1.56 4.05±1.30 6.05±0.89 3.32±1.20
    Uncultured_bacterium_f_Ruminococcaceae 1.20±1.95 4.16±2.01 7.09±3.56 3.71±1.89
    瘤胃球菌属 Ruminococcus 2.63±1.56 2.90±0.89 3.59±0.85 3.58±1.02
    Uncultured_bacterium_o_Clostridiales 4.09±1.56 1.67±1.02 2.19±0.89 2.23±1.33
    粪便菌属 Faecalicatena 0.03±0.00 1.58±1.14 3.63±0.87 0.52±0.23
    假丁酸弧菌属 Pseudobutyrivibrio 0.59±0.23 1.36±0.65 1.21±0.56 2.30±0.75
    特氏梭菌属 Hungateiclostridium 0.62±0.05 2.00±0.25 1.85±0.52 0.38±0.03
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  啤酒糟替代饲粮中不同比例精料处理湖羊瘤胃微生物功能预测的基因占比

    Table  6.   Effects of different forages on genes proportion of predicted functions of microbial community in Hu sheep rumen                                               (单位:%)

    项目
    Items
    试验Ⅰ组
    Group Ⅰ
    试验Ⅱ组
    GroupⅡ
    试验Ⅲ组
    Group Ⅲ
    试验Ⅳ组
    Group Ⅳ
    代谢途径 Metabolic pathways 17.43±0.89 17.25±0.89 17.19±0.89 17.34±0.89
    次生代谢产物的生物合成 Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites 8.00±0.02 7.96±0.02 8.05±0.02 8.05±0.02
    抗生素的生物合成 Biosynthesis of antibiotics 5.84±0.02 5.83±0.02 5.87±0.02 5.87±0.02
    氨基酸的生物合成 Biosynthesis of amino acids 4.10±0.07 4.22±0.07 4.35±0.07 4.26±0.07
    不同环境中的微生物代谢 Microbial metabolism in diverse environments 3.78±0.02 3.76±0.02 3.76±0.02 3.75±0.02
    碳代谢 Carbon metabolism 2.62±0.02 2.60±0.02 2.56±0.02 2.58±0.02
    ABC转运 ABC transporters 2.20±0.14 2.41±0.14 2.62±0.14 2.39±0.14
    嘌呤代谢 Purine metabolism 2.11±0.01 2.12±0.01 2.10±0.01 2.10±0.01
    嘧啶代谢 Pyrimidine metabolism 1.82±0.02 1.83±0.02 1.79±0.02 1.83±0.02
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-11-20
  • 修回日期:  2023-02-01
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-03-28
  • 刊出日期:  2023-03-28

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