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山药根腐线虫病发生动态及连作土壤线虫群落结构特征

范琳娟 吴彩云 徐雪亮 刘子荣 姚健 康宏波 胡平华 姚英娟

范琳娟,吴彩云,徐雪亮,等. 山药根腐线虫病发生动态及连作土壤线虫群落结构特征 [J]. 福建农业学报,2023,38(11):1321−1328 doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.11.008
引用本文: 范琳娟,吴彩云,徐雪亮,等. 山药根腐线虫病发生动态及连作土壤线虫群落结构特征 [J]. 福建农业学报,2023,38(11):1321−1328 doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.11.008
FAN L J, WU C Y, XU X L, et al. Occurrence of Root-lesion Disease on Yams and Characteristics of Nematode Community in Continuous Cropping Soil [J]. Fujian Journal of Agricultural Sciences,2023,38(11):1321−1328 doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.11.008
Citation: FAN L J, WU C Y, XU X L, et al. Occurrence of Root-lesion Disease on Yams and Characteristics of Nematode Community in Continuous Cropping Soil [J]. Fujian Journal of Agricultural Sciences,2023,38(11):1321−1328 doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.11.008

山药根腐线虫病发生动态及连作土壤线虫群落结构特征

doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.11.008
基金项目: 江西省农业科研协同创新项目(JXXTCX202108、JXXTCX202310);江西省学科带头人培养计划项目(20213BCJL22045);江西省农业科学院基础研究与人才培养专项(JXSNKYJCRC202206)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    范琳娟(1991 — ),女,硕士,助理研究员,主要从事山药线虫绿色防控研究,E-mail:fljx99@163.com

    通讯作者:

    姚英娟(1976 — ),女,博士,研究员,主要从事有害生物综合治理研究,E-mail:yaoyingjuan2008@163.com

  • 中图分类号: S435

Occurrence of Root-lesion Disease on Yams and Characteristics of Nematode Community in Continuous Cropping Soil

  • 摘要:   目的  探索早熟和晚熟品种、浅生槽定向栽培和传统栽培连作山药田根腐线虫的发生动态及山药连作土壤线虫群落结构的变化,以期为山药根腐线虫病的科学防治提供参考。  方法  以早熟品种永丰淮山传统栽培田、晚熟品种泰和竹篙薯浅生槽定向栽培田和传统栽培田连作土壤为研究对象,依据不同品种山药生长特点定期采集土样,采用贝尔曼漏斗法对土壤线虫进行分离,利用线虫形态学特征将线虫鉴定到属,并进行计数,分析线虫群落随着山药生长在土壤中的变化特征。  结果  永丰淮山和竹篙薯田土壤短体线虫属 Pratylenchus种群数量分别从6月和8月之后开始急剧增加,10月达到高峰。不同品种和不同栽培方式山药田土壤分别共分离到9属、13属和12属线虫,且线虫群落均主要由食细菌类线虫和植物寄生类线虫组成。10月土壤中短体线虫属相对丰度急剧增加的同时,永丰淮山土壤中食细菌类线虫拟丽突线虫属Acrobeloides的相对丰度显著降低93.55%,而泰和竹篙薯浅生槽定向栽培和传统栽培土壤中食细菌类线虫小杆线虫属Rhabditis相对丰度分别显著降低52.80%和75.99%。此外,泰和传统栽培田土壤中拟丽突线虫属的相对丰度也大幅降低96.01%。对线虫生态指数分析表明,不同品种和不同栽培方式山药田的不同时期土壤线虫生态指数表现不同,但10月时连作土壤线虫多样性指数H’、均匀度指数J’和瓦斯乐思卡指数WI均显著降低。  结论  10月是根腐线虫发生的关键期,其相对丰度的急剧增加会打破土壤生态原有的平衡状态,导致土壤食细菌类线虫相对丰度、线虫群落多样性和均匀度以及土壤健康程度均大幅下降,对土壤环境产生不利影响。
  • 图  1  山药根腐线虫病田间发生动态

    ①A:永丰传统栽培;B:泰和浅生槽定向栽培;C:泰和传统栽培。图2同。②图中数据为每100 g干土壤的线虫数量。

    Figure  1.  Changes on root-lesion-causing nematode population in soil at yam fields

    ①A: Traditional yam cultivation method of Yongfeng County; B: directional shallow trough yam cultivation of Taihe County; C: traditional yam cultivation of Taihe County. Same for Fig. 2. ②The data in the figure shows the number of nematodes per 100 g of dry soil.

    图  2  不同时期山药土壤线虫营养类群结构

    Figure  2.  Trophic structures of nematodes in soil at yam fields at different times

    表  1  不同时期山药土壤线虫的相对丰度

    Table  1.   Relative abundance in soil at yam fields at different times (单位:%)

    属名
    Genus
    永丰传统栽培
    Traditional cultivation method of
    yam in Yongfeng county
    泰和浅生槽定向栽培
    Directional shallow trough cultivation
    method of yam in Taihe county
    泰和传统栽培
    Traditional cultivation method of
    yam in Taihe county
    4月
    April
    6月
    June
    8月
    August
    10月
    October
    5月
    May
    8月
    August
    10月
    October
    12月
    December
    5月
    May
    8月
    August
    10月
    October
    12月
    December
    小杆线虫属
    Rhabditis
    0.75 a 2.03 a 0 a 0 a 31.88 a 26.38 a 12.45 b 31.30 a 33.81 a 33.99 a 8.16 b 46.67 a
    钩唇线虫属
    Diploscapter
    0 a 0 a 0 a 0 a 2.03 a 0 a 0 a 0 a 0 a 0 a 0 a 0 a
    真头叶线虫属
    Eucephalobus
    3.01 ab 5.41 a 1.21 ab 0 b 5.80 a 1.16 b 0.34 b 1.97 b 30.60 a 1.32 b 1.20 b 3.56 b
    丽突线虫属
    Acrobeles
    0 a 0 a 0 a 0 a 3.48 a 0 b 0.17 b 0 b 0 a 0 a 0 a 0 a
    拟丽突线虫属
    Acrobeloides
    63.91 a 64.87 a 56.27 a 3.63 b 18.26 b 62.90 a 57.29 a 56.10 a 12.81 bc 42.11 a 1.68 c 34.67 ab
    绕线线虫属
    Plectus
    0 a 0 a 0 a 0 a 3.77 a 0 b 0 b 0 b 0 a 0 a 0 a 0 a
    棱咽线虫属
    Prismatolainus
    0 a 0 a 0 a 0 a 2.90 a 0 b 0 b 0 b 8.18 a 0 b 0 b 0 b
    滑刃线虫属
    Aphelenchoides
    9.02 a 4.73 ab 1.64 b 0.22 b 12.17 a 1.45 b 2.01 b 0.20 b 0.36 a 5.48 a 0.24 a 3.11 a
    真滑刃线虫属
    Aphelenchus
    0 a 0 a 0 a 0 a 2.90 a 0.29 a 0.06 a 0 a 1.07 a 1.32 a 0 a 1.78 a
    矛线线虫属
    Dorylaimus
    0 a 0 a 0.09 a 0 a 1.74 a 0 a 0.17 a 0.98 a 1.07 a 0.44 a 0 a 0 a
    垫刃线虫属
    Tylenchus
    2.26 a 0 a 0.43 a 0.66 a 4.64 ab 1.45 b 1.51 b 7.28 a 2.49 a 1.97 a 0.48 a 0.89 a
    针线虫属
    Paratylenchus
    0 a 0.68 a 0 a 0 a 0 a 0 a 0 a 0 a 0.36 a 0 a 0 a 0 a
    根结线虫属
    Meloidogyne
    14.29 a 2.03 ab 0.17 b 0 b 8.41 a 2.32 b 0 b 0.59 b 0.71 a 0.44 a 0 a 0 a
    短体线虫属
    Pratylenchus
    6.77 d 20.27 c 40.19 b 95.50 a 2.03 b 4.06 b 26.02 a 1.57 b 4.27 c 12.94 b 88.23 a 9.33 bc
    毛刺线虫属
    Trichodorus
    0 a 0 a 0 a 0 a 0 a 0 a 0 a 0 a 4.27 a 0 b 0 b 0 b
    同行相同品种相同栽培方式无相同字母的表示处理间差异显著(P<0.05)。
    Data with different letters on same row indicates significant difference between treatments with same cultivation method on same yam variety (P<0.05).
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同时期山药土壤线虫群落生态指数

    Table  2.   Ecological indices of nematodes in soil at yam fields at different times

    处理
    Treatment
    时间
    Time
    H'J'WIPPIMI
    永丰传统栽培
    Traditional cultivation method of
    yam in Yongfeng county
    4月 April 1.07±0.15a 0.64±0.06 a 4.36±1.68 a 2.75±0.25 a 1.99±0.01 a
    6月 June 1.02±0.16 a 0.68±0.04 a 3.41±0.55 a 2.97±0.03 a 1.98±0.02 a
    8月 August 0.83±0.13 a 0.58±0.05 a 1.51±0.31 ab 2.99±0.01 a 2.00±0.01 a
    10月 October 0.20±0.02 b 0.19±0.02 b 0.04±0.01 b 2.99±0.00 a 2.00±0.00 a
    泰和浅生槽定向栽培
    Directional shallow trough cultivation
    method of yam in Taihe county
    5月 May 2.04±0.16 a 0.78±0.06 a 7.23±0.21 a 2.70±0.11 a 1.71±0.13 a
    8月 August 0.99±0.07 b 0.39±0.03 c 8.91±0.13 a 2.77±0.06 a 1.73±0.05 a
    10月 October 1.10±0.02 b 0.57±0.03 b 2.63±0.20 b 2.94±0.02 a 1.83±0.01 a
    12月December 1.08±0.08 b 0.62±0.04 b 10.33±2.70 a 2.92±0.12 a 1.68±0.03 a
    泰和传统栽培
    Traditional cultivation method of
    yam in Taihe county
    5月 May 1.65±0.05 a 0.77±0.05 a 7.76±1.47 a 3.19±0.22 a 1.72±0.03 a
    8月 August 1.25±0.08 b 0.31±0.02 b 6.06±1.41 a 2.84±0.10 a 1.67±0.13 a
    10月 October 0.47±0.02 c 0.11±0.01 c 0.13± 0.01 b 2.99±0.00 a 1.27±0.03 b
    12月 December 1.47±0.17 ab 0.82±0.17 a 9.01±2.57 a 2.92±0.04 a 1.46±0.09 ab
    同列相同品种相同栽培方式无相同字母的表示处理间差异显著(P<0.05)。
    Data with different letters indicated significant difference between treatments with same cultivation method on same yam variety (P<0.05).
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2023-06-26
  • 修回日期:  2023-07-26
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-11-20
  • 刊出日期:  2023-11-28

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