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秸秆还田对南方稻田土壤N2O排放及硝化和反硝化微生物群落的影响

韩兴华 张桥 李季 张嘉欣 黎婉玲 孙丽丽 顾文杰 卢钰升 徐培智 解开治

韩兴华,张桥,李季,等. 秸秆还田对南方稻田土壤N2O排放及硝化和反硝化微生物群落的影响 [J]. 福建农业学报,2023,38(11):1344−1357 doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.11.011
引用本文: 韩兴华,张桥,李季,等. 秸秆还田对南方稻田土壤N2O排放及硝化和反硝化微生物群落的影响 [J]. 福建农业学报,2023,38(11):1344−1357 doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.11.011
HAN X H, ZHANG Q, LI J, et al. Effects of Straw-returning on N2O Emission and Nitrifying/Denitrifying Microbes in Paddy Soil in Southern China [J]. Fujian Journal of Agricultural Sciences,2023,38(11):1344−1357 doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.11.011
Citation: HAN X H, ZHANG Q, LI J, et al. Effects of Straw-returning on N2O Emission and Nitrifying/Denitrifying Microbes in Paddy Soil in Southern China [J]. Fujian Journal of Agricultural Sciences,2023,38(11):1344−1357 doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.11.011

秸秆还田对南方稻田土壤N2O排放及硝化和反硝化微生物群落的影响

doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.11.011
基金项目: 广东省农业科学院低碳农业与碳中和研究中心项目(XT202220);广东省科技计划项目(2021B1212050020);广东省农业科学院农业优势产业学科团队建设项目(202121TD);广东省现代农业产业技术体系创新团队项目(2023KJ118);广东省农业科学院中青年学科带头人培养计划(R2020PY-JG012);广东省农业科学院汕尾分院科技合作专项(2021-分院专项-02);茂名实验室科研启动项目(2021TDQD002)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    韩兴华(1997 — ),女,硕士,主要从事温室气体排放研究,E-mail:1365349301@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    解开治(1977 — ),男,博士,研究员,主要从事农业微生物研究,E-mail:xiekzgsau@163.com

    徐培智(1963 — ),男,研究员,主要从事土壤碳氮磷循环研究,E-mail:pzxu007@163.com

  • 中图分类号: S141.4;S154.3

Effects of Straw-returning on N2O Emission and Nitrifying/Denitrifying Microbes in Paddy Soil in Southern China

  • 摘要:   目的  以我国南方典型赤红壤水稻土为研究对象,探究不同秸秆还田量对双季稻区晚稻季土壤N2O排放特征及硝化和反硝化微生物的影响,旨在为南方稻田N2O减排提供科学依据。  方法  以2015年设置的定位试验为研究平台,设计5个处理:(1)CK,化肥+无秸秆还田;(2)CKS,化肥+当季秸秆全量还田;(3)S10,化肥+当季秸秆全量还田+秸秆替代10%钾肥;(4)S20,化肥+当季秸秆全量还田+秸秆替代20%钾肥;(5)S30,化肥+当季秸秆全量还田+秸秆替代30%钾肥。采用密闭静态暗箱-气相色谱法及宏基因组测序对气体和土壤微生物进行检测。  结果  稻田土壤N2O排放主要集中在水稻分蘖期;较CK处理,秸秆还田各处理显著降低了稻田土壤N2O累计排放量,其中,S30处理的N2O累计排放量最低,为0.09 kg·hm−2,其全球增温潜势也最低;硝化过程中,氨氧化细菌(amoAamoB)在分蘖期和成熟期的优势菌属均为甲基孢囊菌属;反硝化过程中,nirK型反硝化细菌的芽单胞菌属、罗河杆菌属、丰祐菌属在分蘖期和成熟期细菌属中均占据主导地位;nirS型反硝化细菌的嗜甲基菌属和甲基营养型反硝化菌属在分蘖期和成熟期细菌属中均占据主导地位;分蘖期,土壤N2O排放量与nirS型反硝化细菌的甲基营养型反硝化菌属呈显著负相关、与nirS型反硝化细菌的沙壤土杆菌属呈显著正相关;成熟期,土壤N2O排放量与nirS型反硝化细菌的水生细菌属呈极显著正相关关系。  结论  秸秆还田显著降低了稻田土壤N2O排放,AOB(amoA)和AOB(amoB)的甲基孢囊菌属是氨氧化过程的优势菌属,nirK型反硝化细菌的芽单胞菌属、罗河杆菌属、丰祐菌属,和nirS型反硝化细菌的嗜甲基菌属及甲基营养型反硝化菌属是反硝化过程的优势菌属。
  • 图  1  水稻四个生长阶段稻田土壤N2O排放通量

    Figure  1.  N2O emission flux of paddy soil at 4 rice growth stages

    图  2  稻田土壤分蘖期和成熟期N2O排放通量

    不同小写字母表示不同处理间差异显著(P<0.05),图3、表3同。

    Figure  2.  N2O emission flux of paddy soil at rice tillering and mature stages

    The different letters indicates significant difference among treatments at P<0.05 level. Same for Figure 3 and Table 3.

    图  3  水稻生育期稻田土壤N2O累计排放量

    Figure  3.  Cumulative N2O emission from paddy soil in rice growth period

    图  4  秸秆还田下土壤硝化和反硝化微生物群落非度量多维尺度分析(NMDS)

    Figure  4.  Non-metric multidimensional scale analysis on soil nitrifying/denitrifying microbes under straw-returning practice

    图  5  秸秆还田下硝化细菌属相对丰度

    Figure  5.  Relative abundance of nitrifying microbes under straw-returning practice

    图  6  秸秆还田下反硝化细菌属相对丰度

    Figure  6.  Relative abundance of denitrifying microbes under straw-returning practice

    表  1  不同处理化肥养分投入量

    Table  1.   Nutrients in treatment fertilizers (kg·hm−2

    处理
    Treatment
    早稻 Early rice 晚稻 Late rice 总计 Total
    NP2O5K2O NP2O5K2O NP2O5K2O
    CK 155.3 47.3 135 155.3 47.3 135 310.5 94.5 270
    CKS 155.3 47.3 135 155.3 47.3 135 310.5 94.5 270
    S10 155.3 47.3 121.5 155.3 47.3 121.5 310.5 94.5 243
    S20 155.3 47.3 108 155.3 47.3 108 310.5 94.5 216
    S30 155.3 47.3 94.5 155.3 47.3 94.5 310.5 94.5 189
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  硝化反硝化过程关键功能基因

    Table  2.   Key functional genes involving nitrification and denitrification in soil

    功能基因分组
    Functional gene grouping
    目标基因
    Target gene
    KEGG编号
    KEGG number
    基因功能详情
    Gene Function Details
    硝化作用 NitrificationamoA(AOB)K10944氨单加氧酶亚基A Ammonia monooxygenase subunit A
    amoB(AOB)K10945氨单加氧酶亚基B Ammonia monooxygenase subunit B
    反硝化作用 DenitrificationnirKK00368亚硝酸还原酶 Nitrite reductase
    nirSK15864亚硝酸还原酶 Nitrite reductase
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同处理下土壤N2O的增温潜势

    Table  3.   Global warming potentials due to N2O emitted from soils under treatments (kg·hm-2

    处理 TreatementCKS10S20S30CKS
    GWP204.05±12.24 a31.80±3.06 d95.40±9.18 c23.85±1.53 d121.90±9.18 b
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  分蘖期土壤N2O排放通量与硝化反硝化微生物群落相关性

    Table  4.   Correlation between soil N2O emission and nitrifying/denitrifying microbes at rice tillering stage

    硝化和反硝化功能基因
    Nitrification and Denitrifying gene
    菌属(属水平)
    Bacteria(genus level)
    相关性系数
    Correlation coefficient
    P
    P−value
    amoA (AOB)甲基孢囊菌属(Methylocystis0.1070.703
    亚硝化螺菌属(Nitrosospira−0.0680.809
    硝化螺菌属(Nitrospira0.2270.416
    amoB(AOB)慢生根瘤菌属(Bradyrhizobium−0.0380.892
    甲基孢囊菌属(Methylocystis−0.1520.588
    nirK气火菌属(Aeropyrum−0.0980.729
    Ardenticatena−0.2500.370
    慢生根瘤菌属(Bradyrhizobium0.0780.781
    厌氧铵氧化菌(Candidatus Brocadia−0.2360.396
    戴氏菌属(Dyella−0.0180.948
    芽单胞菌属(Gemmatimonas0.2600.348
    新草螺菌属(Noviherbaspirillum−0.1180.676
    丰祐菌属(Opitutus−0.4890.064
    生丝微菌属(Pseudolabrys−0.2250.419
    罗尔斯顿菌属(Ralstonia−0.1360.628
    罗河杆菌属(Rhodanobacter−0.0730.795
    nirS水生细菌(Aquabacterium−0.1360.629
    广泛固氮氢自养单胞菌(Azohydromonas−0.1170.677
    慢生根瘤菌属(Bradyrhizobium−0.2100.453
    累积念珠菌(Candidatus Accumulibacter−0.0570.839
    草螺菌(Herbaspirillum0.0480.864
    嗜甲基菌属(Methylobacillus−0.1660.555
    甲基营养型反硝化菌(Methylotenera−0.606*0.017
    新草螺菌属(Noviherbaspirillum−0.3840.158
    沙壤土杆菌(Ramlibacter0.521*0.046
    红长命菌属(Rubrivivax−0.1100.698
    硫氧化菌(Sulfurovum0.2290.412
    陶厄氏菌(Thauera0.1200.670
    硫杆菌(Thiobacillus0.2480.372
    辫硫细菌属(Thioploca0.0300.915
    “*”和“**”分别表示相关性为显著(P<0.05)和极显著(P<0.01)。下同。
    * and ** indicate significant correlation at P<0.05, and extremely significant at P<0.01, respectively. Same for below.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  成熟期土壤N2O排放通量与硝化反硝化微生物群落相关性

    Table  5.   Correlation between soil N2O emission and nitrifying/denitrifying microbes at rice mature stage

    硝化和反硝化功能基因
    Nitrification and Denitrifying gene
    菌属(属水平)
    Bacteria (genus level)
    相关性系数
    Correlation coefficient
    P
    P−value
    amoA(AOB)甲基孢囊菌属(Methylocystis−0.2740.323
    亚硝化螺菌属(Nitrosospira0.0890.753
    硝化螺菌属(Nitrospira−0.0980.729
    amoB(AOB)慢生根瘤菌属(Bradyrhizobium−0.3900.151
    甲基孢囊菌属(Methylocystis0.3540.195
    nirKArdenticatena0.2530.363
    慢生根瘤菌属(Bradyrhizobium0.2010.473
    厌氧铵氧化菌(Candidatus Brocadia−0.0080.979
    戴氏菌属(Dyella0.0870.757
    芽单胞菌属(Gemmatimonas0.0050.987
    微单孢菌属(Gemmatirosa−0.2610.347
    新草螺菌属(Noviherbaspirillum0.4820.069
    丰祐菌属(Opitutus−0.0990.727
    生丝微菌属(Pseudolabrys−0.2800.311
    罗尔斯顿菌属(Ralstonia0.2970.283
    罗河杆菌属(Rhodanobacter0.0960.735
    nirS水生细菌(Aquabacterium0.642**0.010
    广泛固氮氢自养单胞菌(Azohydromonas−0.1190.674
    慢生根瘤菌属(Bradyrhizobium−0.0870.757
    累积念珠菌(Candidatus Accumulibacter−0.3770.166
    草螺菌(Herbaspirillum−0.4350.105
    嗜甲基菌属(Methylobacillus0.3060.267
    甲基营养型反硝化菌(Methylotenera0.1730.539
    新草螺菌属(Noviherbaspirillum−0.1230.661
    沙壤土杆菌(Ramlibacter0.2720.326
    硫氧化菌(Sulfurovum0.3270.234
    陶厄氏菌(Thauera0.1890.501
    辫硫细菌属(Thioploca0.3270.234
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2023-04-12
  • 修回日期:  2023-06-12
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-10-25
  • 刊出日期:  2023-11-28

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