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优质抗病糯稻种质的性状鉴定及其杂种优势利用

张玉婷 史夏蕾 王泓超 凌波 梁莹莹 陈小玲 程祖锌 肖长春 林荔辉

张玉婷,史夏蕾,王泓超,等. 优质抗病糯稻种质的性状鉴定及其杂种优势利用 [J]. 福建农业学报,2024,39(4):398−408 doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2024.04.004
引用本文: 张玉婷,史夏蕾,王泓超,等. 优质抗病糯稻种质的性状鉴定及其杂种优势利用 [J]. 福建农业学报,2024,39(4):398−408 doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2024.04.004
ZHANG Y T, SHI X L, WANG H C, et al. Characterization and Heterosis of High Quality Resistant Glutinous Rice Germplasms [J]. Fujian Journal of Agricultural Sciences,2024,39(4):398−408 doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2024.04.004
Citation: ZHANG Y T, SHI X L, WANG H C, et al. Characterization and Heterosis of High Quality Resistant Glutinous Rice Germplasms [J]. Fujian Journal of Agricultural Sciences,2024,39(4):398−408 doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2024.04.004

优质抗病糯稻种质的性状鉴定及其杂种优势利用

doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2024.04.004
基金项目: 福建省科技计划高校产学研合作项目(2022N5011);福建省(山区)作物遗传改良与创新利用重点实验室开放课题(2022SKF02)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    张玉婷(1999 —),女,硕士,主要从事水稻遗传育种研究,E-mail:3520207761@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    林荔辉(1970 —),男,博士,研究员,主要从事水稻遗传育种研究,E-mail:lihui9027@163.com

  • 中图分类号: S511

Characterization and Heterosis of High Quality Resistant Glutinous Rice Germplasms

  • 摘要:   目的  为有效改良传统糯稻品种的产量、品质及抗性等综合性状,满足当前专用型糯稻市场的发展需求。  方法  采用不完全双列杂交(NC II)方法,构建亲本及20个杂种一代的遗传群体,评价糯稻亲本及杂交组合产量和品质性状的育种利用价值,鉴定出高产、抗病、低直链淀粉含量、高碱消值的糯稻新种质。  结果  7个优良品系的实割产量变幅7744.35~9216.45 kg·hm−2,其中X-104实割产量最高,达9216.45 kg·hm−2,X-27实割产量达8960.40 kg·hm−2,明显优于3个对照;两个株系植株矮壮,且分别携带了Pi-1Pi-khPi-1Pi-9Pi-kh的稻瘟病抗性基因,表现为中抗稻瘟病;直链淀粉含量(amylose content, AC)分别为1.71%和1.68%;碱消值(alkali spreading value,ASV)达6.75级和6.13级,育种价值高。在杂种优势利用上,X-27除了株高性状一般配合力为正效应外,该株系有利提高杂种后代的产量与稻米品质。X-57降低后代的株高和AC,提高后代产量和ASV。X-104虽产量高,品质好,但不利于杂种优势利用。闽糯2S/X-41、闽糯2S/X-107杂交一代在产量、株高、AC及碱消值等性状上具有明显的超亲优势和竞争优势,在杂交糯稻上应用价值高。  结论  杂交糯稻的产量与品质均为复杂性状,其中有效穗数、穗长、千粒重、长宽比、单株产量、AC、ASV主要受糯稻恢复系的控制。各性状的广义遗传率(h2B)变幅14.72%~53.99%,狭义遗传率(h2N)变幅10.25%~43.07%,遗传率较低,易受环境影响。育种上需大量配组,方可培育出不同用途的专用型糯稻杂交稻。
  • 表  1  与3个抗病基因紧密连锁的引物序列

    Table  1.   Sequences of primers closely linked to 3 resistance genes

    标记名称
    Tag name
    引物序列(5′-3')
    Primer sequence
    连锁的抗病基因
    Linked resistance genes
    退火温度Tm/℃
    RM224F:ATCGATCGATCTTCACGAGGPi-155
    R:TGCTATAAAAGGCATTCGGG
    FP1+FP2+RPFP1:TCCCTGATTCCAACCTGCAGCAAGAGPi-960
    FP2:CCAACCTGCACCAGCCT
    RP:CCATGCTGATACTTGGGGCA
    RM206F:CCCATGCGTTTAACTATTCTPi-kh55
    R:CGTTCCATCGATCCGTATGG
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  7个糯稻株系稻瘟病抗性及品质性状

    Table  2.   Blast resistance and quality traits of 7 glutinous rice lines

    株系
    Strain
    携带抗病基因
    Disease
    resistance genes
    苗期叶瘟
    Leaf plague at
    seedling stage
    抗感类型
    Type of
    resistance
    碱消值
    ASV
    X-27 Pi-1/Pi-kh 3 中抗 MR 6.75
    X-41 Pi-9 3 中抗 MR 5.75
    X-44 Pi-1 3 中抗 MR 6.38
    X-57 Pi-1 Pi-9 3 中抗 MR 5.88
    X-83 Pi-1 3 中抗 MR 5.38
    X-104 Pi-1/Pi-9/Pi-kh 3 中抗 MR 6.13
    X-107 Pi-1/Pi-9/Pi-kh 3 中抗 MR 5.88
    珍珠糯(CK1) / 7 感 S 5.88
    金糯6号(CK2) / 3 中抗 MR 5.25
    金贵丝苗(CK3) / 4 中感 MS 3.88
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  7个优异品系的产量分析

    Table  3.   Yields and ACs of 7 premium rice lines

    株系
    Strain
    产量 Yield/(kg·hm−2 直链淀粉含量AC/%
    理论产量
    Theoretical yield
    实割产量
    Solid cut yield
    均值±标准差
    Mean ± standard deviation
    变异系数
    Coefficient of variation/%
    X-27 9542.85±1304.85abAB 8960.40±389.25aAB 1.71±0.23bcB 4.95
    X-41 8368.65±994.80bcABC 8085.75±195.45bcCD 1.75±0.02bcB 1.35
    X-44 8275.65±2164.50bcBC 7744.35±389.40cdCD 1.99±0.22bB 10.89
    X-57 8484.15±1111.80bcABC 8107.05±266.40bcCD 1.82±0.07bcB 3.92
    X-83 8285.55±1187.85bcBC 7808.40±230.85cdCD 1.81±0.07bcB 4.11
    X-104 10164.45±2112.90aA 9216.45±64.05aA 1.68±0.08cB 4.72
    X-107 8809.20±847.35abcABC 8320.50±230.70bBC 1.87±0.12bcB 6.64
    珍珠糯(CK1) 8481.45±1131.75bcABC 8192.40±64.05bcCD 1.83±0.12bcB 6.65
    金糯6号(CK2) 7689.60±1935.45cC 7531.05±37.05dD 1.92±0.12bcB 6.28
    金贵丝苗(CK3) 8705.70±1241.40bcABC 8213.70±551.85bcC 16.95±0.50aA 2.98
    大、小写字母分别表示0.01和0.05水平差异显著。
    Data with upper- and lower-case letters indicate significant differences at P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  7个优异株系及对照品种的部分农艺性状

    Table  4.   Agronomic traits of 7 premium rice lines and reference varieties

    株系
    Strain
    株高
    Plant height/
    cm
    主穗长
    Main panicle
    length/cm
    主穗重
    Main panicle
    weight/g
    每穗总粒数
    Total number of
    grains per panicle
    粒长
    Grain length/
    mm
    长宽比
    Length-width
    ratio
    结实率
    Setting
    percentage/%
    千粒重
    Thousand seed
    weight/g
    单株产量
    Yield per
    plant/g
    X-27 101.3±1.9f 20.71±0.19e 5.33±0.33c 287.63±42.28ab 9.32±0.28de 3.96±0.27bcd 89.77±1.94bcd 21.81±1.05c 34.46±3.52bcd
    X-41 106.1±1.1def 22.95±0.64cd 5.28±0.34c 256.50±22.70bc 9.29±0.29e 3.98±0.20abcd 89.26±1.09bcd 21.88±0.92c 37.31±2.80b
    X-44 102.3±3.9ef 21.65±0.56de 4.72±0.64d 270.13±49.12b 9.38±0.24cde 4.06±0.28abc 90.64±1.20ab 22.20±0.74c 34.45±6.07bcd
    X-57 101.3±3.7f 21.16±0.44e 5.83±0.35ab 278.88±31.55ab 9.39±0.19cde 4.05±0.28abc 88.50±2.56bcd 21.76±0.97c 35.43±3.58bc
    X-83 103.4±2.3def 21.39±0.73de 5.25±0.60c 268.38±37.20b 9.60±0.20bc 4.14±0.32ab 87.51±2.22d 22.68±1.39c 33.51±3.38cd
    X-104 107.8±1.8cd 23.29±1.12c 6.07±0.77a 306.88±42.16a 9.54±0.32bcd 4.16±0.19ab 87.70±0.98d 22.53±1.21c 40.67±4.37a
    X-107 106.7±3.0 de 21.83±0.72cde 5.29±0.31c 271.50±29.86b 9.66±0.30b 4.27±0.40a 88.30±2.32cd 22.59±1.45c 36.48±1.94bc
    珍珠糯
    (CK1)
    128.6±4.4a 28.42±0.94a 5.92±0.53ab 211.01±25.60d 9.53±0.20bcd 3.82±0.21cd 89.27±2.89bcd 30.05±2.25a 32.04±1.64de
    金糯6号
    (CK2)
    118.2±3.8b 25.01±0.94b 5.44±0.54bc 226.88±17.08cd 9.54±0.06bcd 3.72±0.23d 92.61±2.96a 25.07±1.27b 28.79±3.98e
    金贵丝苗
    (CK3)
    112.5±3.5c 24.97±1.86b 4.63±0.64d 214.38±35.64d 10.21±0.26a 4.09±0.54abc 90.37±4.08abc 24.74±1.64b 36.79±2.31bc
    同一性状不同小写字母表示差异达显著水平(P<0.05)。
    Data with different lowercase letters on same trait indicate differences at P<0.05.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  亲本及其杂种后代主要产量及品质性状配合力方差

    Table  5.   Variance of combining ability on yield and quality traits of parents and their hybrid offspring

    变异来源
    Source of variation
    组合
    Combination
    不育系一般
    配合力方差 A
    恢复系一般
    配合力方差 R
    组合特殊
    配合力方差 A×R
    误差
    Error
    株高
    Plant height
    51.77** 70.73** 150.00** 14.28 13.15
    有效穗数
    Effective tiller number
    2.85** 5.96 2.59 2.17** 0.65
    穗长
    Panicle length
    5.92** 13.25 5.30 4.29 3.40
    结实率
    Setting percentage
    67.67** 140.46* 124.65* 30.48** 13.16
    千粒重
    Thousand seed weight
    3.50** 11.92** 3.82 1.29* 0.59
    长宽比
    Length-width ratio
    0.12** 0.37** 0.07 0.07 0.05
    单株产量
    Yeld per plant
    102.37** 327.69* 21.36 73.04** 22.83
    直链淀粉含量AC 0.04** 0.10** 0.06* 0.02** 0.01
    碱消值
    ASV
    2.84** 3.68 8.09** 1.25* 0.67
    *代表P<0.05的显著水平,**代表P<0.01的显著水平。
    *: significant at P<0.05; **: significant at P<0.01.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  亲本主要产量和品质性状的GCA效应值

    Table  6.   GCA effect on yield and quality traits of parents

    亲本
    Parent
    株高
    Plant height
    有效穗数
    Effective tiller number
    穗长
    Ear length
    结实率
    Setting percentage
    千粒重
    Thousand seed weight
    长宽比
    Length-width ratio
    单株产量
    Yield per plant
    直链淀粉
    含量AC
    碱消值
    ASV
    X-27 4.30 3.21 0.60 6.04 0.31 −1.63 4.64 −3.92 7.02
    X-41 0.59 −7.78 −0.71 −7.12 5.33 −1.51 −4.68 3.22 1.75
    X-57 −2.20 4.06 −3.49 0.81 −2.28 0.89 3.19 −9.46 1.65
    X-104 2.02 −5.25 4.78 2.77 −0.87 −1.76 −2.03 6.46 −24.56
    X-107 −4.71 5.75 −1.18 −2.49 −2.50 4.02 −1.12 3.69 15.79
    糯326S −1.60 11.68 2.47 3.59 −4.92 1.26 19.84 2.26 −1.75
    闽农糯6A −0.07 −7.28 3.75 −2.48 −0.44 −7.66 −9.18 −2.47 9.47
    明糯208A 3.71 −3.89 −0.24 −5.51 7.00 4.07 −7.37 5.27 −27.02
    闽糯2S −2.04 −0.51 −5.98 4.41 −1.65 2.33 −3.29 −5.06 19.30
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  20个组合主要产量和品质性状的SCA效应值

    Table  7.   SCA effect on yield traits, AC, and ASV in 20 combinations

    组合
    Combination
    株高
    Plant
    height
    有效穗数
    Effective
    tiller
    number
    穗长
    Ear
    length
    结实率
    Setting
    percentage
    千粒重
    Thousand
    seed
    weight
    长宽比
    Length-width
    ratio
    单株产量
    Yield per
    plant
    直链淀粉
    含量AC
    碱消值

    ASV
    糯326S/X-27 4.31 11.68 3.30 9.45 −9.21 −2.78 34.04 −0.85 12.28
    闽农糯6A/X-27 5.58 −8.63 4.84 2.99 1.56 −7.18 −6.69 5.38 −1.75
    明糯208A/X-27 7.16 15.06 1.52 −0.39 7.81 9.82 −4.80 0.65 −1.75
    闽糯2S/X-27 6.94 −5.25 −7.26 12.11 1.09 −6.40 −4.01 −5.18 19.30
    糯326S/X-41 0.58 1.52 6.02 0.76 3.43 4.99 0.12 4.22 −15.79
    闽农糯6A/X-41 0.89 −22.17 4.72 −6.93 3.97 −12.96 −23.58 −0.63 12.28
    明糯208A/X-41 1.26 −12.01 0.69 −22.79 10.53 −3.73 −0.95 −5.36 −29.82
    闽糯2S/X-41 −3.94 1.52 −14.26 0.46 3.37 5.68 5.68 1.78 40.35
    糯326S/X-57 −5.00 21.83 1.76 4.11 −1.14 4.73 30.17 1.49 19.30
    闽农糯6A/X-57 −4.71 −5.25 −3.34 −5.40 −5.44 −8.04 −4.14 −0.72 19.30
    明糯208A/X-57 3.68 1.52 −2.28 4.04 3.31 2.14 −0.03 −0.01 −29.82
    闽糯2S/X-57 −6.22 −1.86 −10.10 0.49 −5.84 4.73 −13.23 −0.76 −8.77
    糯326S/X-104 −2.41 1.52 −1.21 2.52 −6.10 −4.59 10.09 0.23 −43.86
    闽农糯6A/X-104 2.69 −8.63 7.09 4.23 2.83 −4.68 −6.57 −11.57 −15.79
    明糯208A/X-104 2.72 −25.55 1.99 −3.09 5.78 0.16 −29.08 6.05 −43.86
    闽糯2S/X-104 1.49 11.68 11.24 7.42 −5.97 2.05 17.46 5.30 5.26
    糯326S/X-107 −7.40 21.83 2.47 1.10 −11.57 3.95 24.76 −5.08 19.30
    闽农糯6A/X-107 −5.37 8.29 5.43 −7.30 −5.11 −5.45 −4.90 7.54 33.33
    明糯208A/X-107 2.26 1.52 −3.11 −5.33 7.59 11.97 −2.00 −1.32 −29.82
    闽糯2S/X-107 −4.50 −8.63 −9.51 1.56 −0.89 5.59 −22.35 −1.14 40.35
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  8  杂种一代的产量和品质性状的超亲优势和竞争优势

    Table  8.   Yield, AC, and ASV of F1 hybrids that surpassed parents

    组合
    Combination
    单株重 Weight per plant 直链淀粉含量AC 碱消值ASV
    超亲优势
    Heterobeltiosis
    竞争优势CK1
    Competitive
    advantage
    CK1
    竞争优势CK2
    Competitive
    advantage
    CK2
    超亲优势
    Heterobeltiosis
    竞争优势CK1
    Competitive
    advantage
    CK1
    竞争优势CK2
    Competitive
    advantage
    CK2
    超亲优势
    Heterobeltiosis
    竞争优势CK1
    Competitive
    advantage
    CK1
    竞争优势CK2
    Competitive
    advantage
    CK2
    糯326S/X-27 38.40 55.15 74.12 1.17 −5.46 −9.90 −21.04 −16.46 −9.35
    闽农糯6A/X-27 15.54 24.51 45.36 2.92 −3.83 −8.33 −30.81 −26.80 −20.58
    明糯208A/X-27 17.89 32.16 48.32 5.85 −1.09 −5.73 −30.81 −26.80 −20.58
    闽糯2S/X-27 18.88 33.27 49.57 −11.11 −16.94 −20.83 −16.00 −11.13 −3.57
    糯326S/X-41 32.52 39.00 55.99 11.43 6.56 1.56 −30.43 −37.30 −31.97
    闽农糯6A/X-41 1.15 6.10 19.07 1.71 −2.73 −7.29 −7.30 −16.46 −9.35
    明糯208A/X-41 31.10 37.51 54.32 4.57 0.00 −4.69 −42.09 −47.81 −43.37
    闽糯2S/X-41 39.86 46.70 64.64 1.14 −3.28 −7.81 16.00 4.55 13.44
    糯326S/X-57 18.57 49.77 68.08 −8.24 9.29 −13.02 −3.57 −11.13 −3.57
    闽农糯6A/X-57 5.37 33.09 49.36 −14.84 −15.30 −19.27 −3.57 −11.13 −3.57
    明糯208A/X-57 9.88 38.78 55.75 −6.59 −7.10 −11.46 −43.37 −47.81 −43.37
    闽糯2S/X-57 −4.63 20.46 35.19 −17.58 −18.03 −21.88 −26.36 −32.13 −26.36
    糯326S/X-104 29.71 52.83 71.52 14.88 5.46 0.52 −56.44 −58.15 −54.59
    闽农糯6A/X-104 10.09 29.71 45.57 −2.38 −10.38 −14.58 −34.75 −37.30 −31.97
    明糯208A/X-104 −16.44 −1.55 10.49 24.40 14.21 8.85 −56.44 −58.15 −54.59
    闽糯2S/X-104 38.40 63.08 83.01 12.50 3.28 −1.56 −18.43 −21.63 −14.97
    糯326S/X-107 17.39 42.25 59.64 −4.28 −2.19 −6.77 −3.57 −11.13 −3.57
    闽农糯6A/X-107 8.97 32.03 48.18 3.21 5.46 0.52 7.65 −0.78 7.65
    明糯208A/X-107 12.29 36.06 52.69 2.14 4.37 −0.52 −43.37 −47.81 −43.37
    闽糯2S/X-107 −11.03 7.80 20.98 −7.49 −5.46 −9.90 13.44 4.55 13.44
    变化幅度 −16.44~39.86 −1.55~63.08 10.49~83.01 −17.58~24.40 −18.03~14.21 −21.88~8.85 −56.44~16.00 −58.15~4.55 −54.59~13.44
    CK1为珍珠糯、CK2金糯6号。
    CK1: Zhenzhunuo; CK2: Jinnuo 6.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  9  主要农艺性状及品质性状的遗传方差分量及遗传率

    Table  9.   Genetic variance components and heritability of major agronomic traits and AC

    性状
    Character
    基因型方差
    Genotypic variance
    方差贡献率
    Variance contribution rate/%
    遗传率
    Heritability/%
    G1 G2 G12 误差
    Error
    Vg Vg1 Vg2 Vs h2B h2N
    株高
    Plant height
    6.786 2.258 0.226 13.154 97.6 73.2 24.4 2.4 41.34 40.33
    有效穗数
    Effective tiller number
    0.021 0.152 0.303 0.650 36.3 4.4 31.9 63.7 42.28 15.34
    穗长
    Panicle length
    0.051 0.358 0.178 3.401 69.7 8.6 61.1 30.3 14.72 10.25
    结实率
    Setting percentage
    4.709 4.399 3.463 13.164 72.5 37.5 35.0 27.6 48.85 35.39
    千粒重
    Thousand seed weight
    0.126 0.425 0.140 0.589 79.8 18.3 61.5 20.2 53.99 43.07
    长宽比
    Length-width ratio
    0.009 0.012 0.004 0.050 76.4 36.4 48.6 23.6 23.99 18.33
    单株产量
    Yeld per plant
    2.253 10.186 10.043 22.828 50.4 10.0 45.3 49.7 46.98 23.66
    AC 0.002 0.004 0.002 0.007 71.1 21.5 49.4 28.9 51.95 36.95
    ASV
    0.121 0.273 0.116 0.671 77.4 23.7 53.5 22.6 43.20 33.43
    G1表示糯稻不育系GCA基因型方差,G2表示糯稻恢复系GCA基因型方差,G12表示糯稻不育系与糯稻恢复系互作(SCA)基因型方差,Vg表示GCA基因型方差占总方差比,Vg1表示糯稻不育系GCA基因型方差占总方差比,Vg2表示糯稻恢复系GCA基因型方差占总方差比,Vs表示糯稻不育系和糯稻恢复系互作(SCA)基因型方差占总方差比。h2B表示广义遗传率,h2N表示狭义遗传率。
    G1: Variance of GCA genotypes of glutinous sterile lines; G2: variance of GCA genotypes of glutinous recovery lines; G12: variance of SCA genotypes of glutinous sterile lines and glutinous recovery lines; Vg: variance of GCA genotypes to total variance; Vg1: variance of GCA genotypes of glutinous sterile lines to total variance; Vg2: variance of GCA genotypes of glutinous recovery lines to total variance; Vs: variance of SCA genotypes of glutinous sterile lines to total variance; h2B: broad heritability; h2N: narrow heritability.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2023-12-08
  • 录用日期:  2024-03-27
  • 修回日期:  2024-01-28
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  • 刊出日期:  2024-04-28

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