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人参根、茎叶及其根际土壤中重金属污染评价及迁移能力分析

冉文倩 彭韵洁 王奇 赵博雅 张平平 时东方 陈丽娜 刘春明

冉文倩,彭韵洁,王奇,等. 人参根、茎叶及其根际土壤中重金属污染评价及迁移能力分析 [J]. 福建农业学报,2023,38(11):1358−1366 doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.11.012
引用本文: 冉文倩,彭韵洁,王奇,等. 人参根、茎叶及其根际土壤中重金属污染评价及迁移能力分析 [J]. 福建农业学报,2023,38(11):1358−1366 doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.11.012
RAN W Q, PENG Y J, WANG Q, et al. Migration of Heavy Metals in Rhizosphere Soil to Ginseng Roots, Stems, and Leaves [J]. Fujian Journal of Agricultural Sciences,2023,38(11):1358−1366 doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.11.012
Citation: RAN W Q, PENG Y J, WANG Q, et al. Migration of Heavy Metals in Rhizosphere Soil to Ginseng Roots, Stems, and Leaves [J]. Fujian Journal of Agricultural Sciences,2023,38(11):1358−1366 doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.11.012

人参根、茎叶及其根际土壤中重金属污染评价及迁移能力分析

doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.11.012
基金项目: 吉林省教育厅科学研究项目(JJKH20230924KJ)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    冉文倩(2002 — ),女,主要从事天然药物分析研究,E-mail:3161818400@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    陈丽娜(1984 — ),女,博士,副研究员,主要从事天然药物分析研究,E-mail:chenlina4321@163.com

    刘春明(1964 —),女,博士,教授,主要从事天然药物分析研究,E-mail:ccsf777@163.com

  • 中图分类号: S646.9

Migration of Heavy Metals in Rhizosphere Soil to Ginseng Roots, Stems, and Leaves

  • 摘要:   目的  探究人参根、茎叶及其根际土壤中重金属污染程度及迁移能力。  方法  对来自吉林省3个产区的15份人参样本中元素Al、V、Cr、Cd、Pb、Mn、Co、Ni、Cu、Zn、Ba等进行分析测定,采用单因子污染指数法、内梅罗综合指数法对根际土壤元素Cd、Pb、Cr、Cu、Ni、Zn等进行污染评价,分析人参不同部位对其根际土壤中重金属的富集特性及各元素间的相关性。  结果  人参根、茎叶及根际土壤中Al元素含量最高,根、茎叶变异系数范围分别为:12.07%~58.43%,10.02%~87.96%。根际土壤中有13份样品属于安全、清洁水平,2份属于警戒级、尚清洁水平,其中Cd元素是主要污染物。茎叶和根对各元素的富集趋势相似,BCF平均值相差较大,但均表现为对Cu、Zn、Ba、Cd的富集能力较强。  结论  人参种植要采取手段监测与管控单因子污染指数值最大的Cd元素含量,避免土壤镉污染。人参根、茎叶与土壤元素含量的相关性比较复杂,土壤中部分元素在植物吸收、转运过程中存在协同或拮抗作用。
  • 图  1  人参采样点示意图

    Figure  1.  Schematic diagram of ginseng sampling sites

    图  2  人参根与茎叶元素间的相关性

    Figure  2.  Correlation between elements in roots and stems/leaves of a ginseng plant

    图  3  人参茎叶与根际土壤元素间的相关性

    Figure  3.  Correlation between elements in ginseng stems/leaves and rhizosphere soil

    图  4  人参根与根际土壤元素间的相关性

    Figure  4.  Correlation between elements in ginseng roots and rhizosphere soil

    表  1  农用地土壤污染风险筛选值

    Table  1.   Values for screening pollution risk on agricultural land               (单位:mg·kg−1

    元素
    Element
    农用地土壤污染风险筛选值
    Risk screening value of soil pollution in agricultural land
    pH≤5.55.5<pH≤6.56.5<pH≤7.5pH>7.5
    Cd0.30.30.30.6
    Hg1.31.82.43.4
    As40403025
    Pb7090120170
    Cr150150200250
    Cu5050100100
    Ni6070100190
    Zn200200250300
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  内梅罗综合污染指数法对土壤环境质量评价分级标准

    Table  2.   Standards for classifying soil quality by Nemerow comprehensive pollution index method

    综合污染指数(P综合
    Composite pollution index
    污染等级
    Pollution level
    污染评价
    Pollution assessment
    P综合≤0.7 安全
    Safe
    清洁
    Clean
    0.7<P综合≤1.0 警戒级
    Alert level
    尚清洁
    Relatively clean
    1.0<P综合≤2.0 轻度污染
    Slight pollution
    开始受污染
    Start to be polluted
    2.0<P综合≤3.0 中度污染
    Moderate pollution
    受中度污染
    Moderately polluted
    P综合>3.0 重度污染
    Heavy pollution
    受污染已相当严重
    Heavy polluted
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  人参根样本中重金属和有害元素检测结果

    Table  3.   Heavy metals and harmful elements detected in ginseng roots (单位:mg·kg−1

    编号
    Number
    AlVCrCdPbMnCoNiCuZnBa
    1-114750.651.200.110.0444.060.192.749.8523.1227.00
    1-214211.522.460.210.2472.450.263.488.7923.9529.18
    1-311920.521.550.120.10100.110.202.7510.3221.3317.96
    1-413900.561.280.11042.800.172.7710.1121.6526.40
    1-513661.511.520.200.2070.790.253.138.2322.0426.40
    2-19040.260.170.14077.250.112.137.2914.0314.80
    2-211820.401.540.160.0798.500.162.979.9119.1322.60
    2-312520.541.410.190.15103.320.202.5412.1523.9732.26
    2-414250.611.610.130116.740.223.4010.8128.1824.67
    2-511970.401.390.180.08100.830.162.9710.0223.5722.40
    3-115500.541.390.09039.560.212.9711.9723.8729.19
    3-220020.782.320.13092.960.303.359.9623.9635.54
    3-313020.551.080.14046.830.173.2712.0623.9052.15
    3-414310.501.400.15036.390.163.1911.5221.9128.32
    3-519910.772.180.10091.430.313.189.0725.6333.23
    平均值
    Average value
    1405.330.671.500.140.1375.600.202.9910.1422.6828.14
    标准差
    Standard deviation
    286.880.370.550.040.0727.440.060.361.423.158.62
    CV%20.4154.3636.5125.8358.4336.3027.1312.0714.0513.8930.64
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  人参茎叶样本中重金属和有害元素检测结果

    Table  4.   Heavy metals and harmful elements detected in ginseng stems/leaves (单位:mg·kg−1

    编号
    Number
    AlVCrCdPbMnCoNiCuZnBa
    1-12984.802.142.580.090.71287.160.423.029.9035.6659.44
    1-22099.191.581.900.180.67417.750.423.3811.5732.9864.70
    1-33396.543.343.120.140.92512.100.684.3214.2832.2868.65
    1-42989.242.082.340.090.67298.070.412.919.6933.4560.72
    1-52050.261.932.180.220.89412.350.504.0914.1429.6864.07
    2-11384.901.022.160.410.59249.320.232.626.8529.0860.60
    2-23790.233.463.170.181.11455.840.593.8411.2430.5665.08
    2-31457.440.922.800.371.61188.560.232.027.7530.8366.61
    2-41421.410.551.020.240.04264.360.131.423.8326.6163.77
    2-54014.673.022.510.120.87469.180.513.209.1426.1964.62
    3-11607.111.371.590.170.57212.980.302.8213.6327.5276.80
    3-21663.521.271.300.070.48354.390.323.4111.3128.4260.58
    3-32033.261.551.610.070.66360.100.342.5312.8125.2069.63
    3-41611.221.171.280.130.41209.900.252.2511.5728.6277.60
    3-51461.311.321.360.070.48339.090.333.6511.1820.7952.07
    平均值
    Average value
    2264.341.782.060.170.71335.410.383.0310.5929.1965.00
    标准差
    Standard deviation
    919.790.890.690.100.35102.050.150.792.863.736.51
    CV%10.0261.4936.3461.4949.7587.9649.7517.9810.0229.3510.02
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  人参根际土壤样本中重金属和有害元素检测结果

    Table  5.   Heavy metals and harmful elements detected in ginseng rhizosphere soil (单位:mg·kg−1

    编号
    Number
    AlVCrCdPbMnCoNiCuZnBa
    1-173136.9354.8043.900.5624.072406.0518.9165.7731.1488.82223.50
    1-286154.5144.1833.690.3516.782740.7710.6553.5828.2973.20206.61
    1-364333.7450.9337.370.2816.682022.7316.5745.3523.6381.00238.75
    1-479783.4152.4140.720.5135.222375.4717.4054.9026.8180.26225.23
    1-581160.5945.1235.580.2714.332401.3410.9342.8623.2778.89216.75
    2-184922.8740.7335.740.2913.802307.788.4034.8120.1967.81226.59
    2-283016.4536.4922.660.2011.952151.348.4833.7419.3263.37207.71
    2-385159.4543.6427.920.2713.982263.859.3133.3318.6069.02206.82
    2-490096.3039.3726.040.2914.462546.098.1434.5820.2591.58211.79
    2-594330.8044.1633.450.2414.032355.7010.0640.1222.59103.99243.51
    3-187839.3642.3031.290.2516.202600.089.4035.9621.3581.41186.96
    3-287511.3837.8530.370.2616.332302.128.7539.5921.6667.49173.98
    3-385706.2339.0428.460.2416.422271.628.5340.1224.8291.98176.27
    3-484904.0941.9431.350.2315.953264.039.2234.8320.8677.97186.68
    3-586765.8037.5729.330.2313.813092.778.2532.8217.6865.45226.58
    平均值
    Average value
    83654.7943.3732.520.3016.932473.4510.8741.4922.7078.82210.52
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  人参根际土壤重金属污染评价

    Table  6.   Evaluation on heavy metal pollution of ginseng rhizosphere soil

    编号
    Number
    单因子污染指数
    Single factor pollution index
    内梅罗综合污染指数
    Nemerow composite pollution index
    污染等级
    Pollution level
    污染水平
    Pollution level
    CdPbCrCuNiZn
    1-11.850.200.220.310.660.360.97警戒级 Alert level尚清洁 Relatively clean
    1-21.160.140.170.280.540.290.62安全 Safe清洁 Clean
    1-30.950.140.190.240.450.320.51安全 Safe清洁 Clean
    1-41.720.290.200.270.550.320.90警戒级 Alert level尚清洁 Relatively clean
    1-50.890.120.180.230.430.320.48安全 Safe清洁 Clean
    2-10.950.110.180.200.350.270.51安全 Safe清洁 Clean
    2-20.680.100.110.190.340.250.37安全 Safe清洁 Clean
    2-30.890.120.140.190.330.280.47安全 Safe清洁 Clean
    2-40.980.120.130.200.350.370.52安全 Safe清洁 Clean
    2-50.810.120.170.230.400.420.44安全 Safe清洁 Clean
    3-10.820.130.160.210.360.330.44安全 Safe清洁 Clean
    3-20.880.140.150.220.400.270.47安全 Safe清洁 Clean
    3-30.810.140.140.250.400.370.44安全 Safe清洁 Clean
    3-40.770.130.160.210.350.310.42安全 Safe清洁 Clean
    3-50.780.120.150.180.330.260.42安全 Safe清洁 Clean
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  人参的BCF平均值

    Table  7.   Mean BCF of ginseng

    采样地
    Sample site
    Al V Cr Mn Co Ni Cu Zn Ba Cd
    茎叶
    Stem
    leaf

    Root
    茎叶
    Stem
    leaf

    Root
    茎叶
    Stem
    leaf

    Root
    茎叶
    Stem
    leaf

    Root
    茎叶
    Stem
    leaf

    Root
    茎叶
    Stem
    leaf

    Root
    茎叶
    Stem
    leaf

    Root
    茎叶
    Stem
    leaf

    Root
    茎叶
    Stem
    leaf

    Root
    茎叶
    Stem
    leaf

    Root
    J1 0.036 0.018 0.045 0.020 0.063 0.043 0.164 0.028 0.034 0.016 0.071 0.058 0.460 0.359 0.409 0.280 0.286 0.115 0.433 0.436
    J2 0.027 0.014 0.045 0.011 0.083 0.045 0.141 0.043 0.038 0.019 0.074 0.080 0.386 0.501 0.380 0.278 0.294 0.108 1.002 0.637
    J3 0.020 0.018 0.033 0.015 0.048 0.051 0.115 0.022 0.034 0.023 0.073 0.085 0.558 0.515 0.350 0.297 0.392 0.202 0.452 0.524
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2023-06-13
  • 修回日期:  2023-07-13
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-11-20
  • 刊出日期:  2023-11-28

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