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畜禽粪便施用对红壤铝胁迫下油菜幼苗生长及光合荧光特性的影响

余居华 王利民 丁洪 王煌平 郑祥洲 张玉树 张银龙

余居华,王利民,丁洪,等. 畜禽粪便施用对红壤铝胁迫下油菜幼苗生长及光合荧光特性的影响 [J]. 福建农业学报,2024,39(2):1−10
引用本文: 余居华,王利民,丁洪,等. 畜禽粪便施用对红壤铝胁迫下油菜幼苗生长及光合荧光特性的影响 [J]. 福建农业学报,2024,39(2):1−10
YU J H, WANG L M, DING H, et al. Influences of organic manures application on rape seedling (Brassica napus L.) growth and photosynthetic fluorescence characteristics under aluminum stress in acid red soil [J]. Fujian Journal of Agricultural Sciences,2024,39(2):1−10
Citation: YU J H, WANG L M, DING H, et al. Influences of organic manures application on rape seedling (Brassica napus L.) growth and photosynthetic fluorescence characteristics under aluminum stress in acid red soil [J]. Fujian Journal of Agricultural Sciences,2024,39(2):1−10

畜禽粪便施用对红壤铝胁迫下油菜幼苗生长及光合荧光特性的影响

基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目(51709183);中国博士后科学基金项目(2017M611862);福建省科技计划公益类专项(2020R1025001);福建省农业科学院项目(YC2019007、ZYTS2019016、ZYTS202218、CXPT202106、CXTD2021012-2、DEC2019-05、DWHZ-2022-11)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    余居华(1984 —),男,博士,副研究员,主要从事生源物质生物地球化学循环研究,E-mail:juhuayu1984@gmail.com

  • 中图分类号: S158.3

Influences of organic manures application on rape seedling (Brassica napus L.) growth and photosynthetic fluorescence characteristics under aluminum stress in acid red soil

  • 摘要:   目的  红壤铝毒是限制作物生长的主要因素,畜禽粪便等有机物料作为改善土壤酸度和推动国家化肥零增长行动计划的重要途径之一,其对铝毒胁迫下作物生长及光合荧光特性的影响及其机理研究具有重要意义。  方法  利用盆栽试验,探究了不施畜禽粪便(CK)、施用猪粪10 g·kg−1(P10)、猪粪30 g·kg−1(P30)、猪粪50 g·kg−1(P50)、鸡粪10 g·kg−1(C10)、鸡粪30 g·kg−1(C30)、鸡粪50 g·kg−1(C50)、鸡粪猪粪各15 g·kg−1(PC15)等8个处理对酸性土壤铝毒胁迫下油菜(Brassica napus L.)生物量、光合作用参数和叶绿素荧光特性的影响。  结果  在土壤铝毒胁迫下,不同畜禽粪便处理均促进了油菜幼苗地上部生物量、光合色素含量、光合作用和叶绿素荧光特性,在第80天各处理均显著大于对照组(P<0.05),表明有机物对土壤活性铝的螯合作用和对土壤酸度的中和过程使畜禽粪便有效缓解红壤铝胁迫对油菜幼苗生长的毒害作用。施用等量鸡粪处理比猪粪更有利于促进油菜幼苗地上部生物量、光合色素含量,但对光合作用参数、Fv/Fm值和qP的促进作用较弱,而且鸡粪、猪粪混施处理光合色素含量、光合参数TrGsCiqN均大于单施处理(P<0.05),说明高pH值的鸡粪更利于促进油菜生长,而高养分含量的猪粪更利于促进油菜光合荧光特性。  结论  猪粪施用量50 g·kg−1对油菜生长及光合荧光特性的铝毒胁迫缓解作用最佳,而鸡粪最佳施用量为30 g·kg−1。就油菜幼苗生长和光合荧光特性而言,畜禽粪便种类筛选、最佳用量确定并结合土壤酸度调控对缓解红壤铝毒至关重要。
  • 图  1  不同畜禽粪便处理油菜地上部生物量和光合荧光参数相关性分析

    a:35天,b:80天。**、*表示极显著相关(P<0.01)及显著相关(P<0.05)。

    Figure  1.  Correlations between below ground biomass and photosynthetic fluorescence characteristics of rape under different application rate of organic manure

    a and b represent incubating 35 days and incubating 80 days, respectively. **, * mean extremely significant correlation (P<0.01) or significant correlation (P<0.05).

    表  1  供试样品基本理化性质

    Table  1.   Physico-chemical properties of samples used in this simulation study.

    样品
    Sample
    pH值
    pH value
    有机质
    Organic matter/
    %
    速效钾
    Available K/
    (mg·kg−1)
    水解氮
    Hydrolyzable N/
    (mg·kg−1)
    有效磷
    Olsen-P/
    (mg·kg−1)
    活性铝
    Reactive Al/
    (mg·kg−1)
    土样 Soil 4.50 2.98 44.5 123 4.65 0.284
    鸡粪 Chicken manure 7.60 35.46 1235 2998 846 /
    猪粪 Pig manure 7.20 46.82 2171 4186 1283 /
    /代表未检出。
    / representative not detected.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同畜禽粪便处理对油菜地上部生物量、土壤pH和活性铝含量的影响

    Table  2.   Effects of various organic manure application on aboveground biomass of rape, soil pH and reactive Al contents

    处理
    Treatment
    第35天生物量
    Biomass at 35 d/g
    第80天生物量
    Biomass at 80 d/g
    pH 活性铝
    Reactive Al/(mg·kg−1
    CK 0.68±0.12 b 1.87±0.31 d 4.66±0.10 d 0.273±0.024 a
    P10 0.91±0.28 a 3.59±0.56 c 5.27±0.07 bc 0.138±0.021 c
    P30 0.92±0.17 a 4.50±0.34 b 5.57±0.23 b 0.137±0.014 c
    P50 0.87±0.35 ab 4.05±0.62 bc 5.76±0.15 b 0.137±0.012 c
    C10 0.89±0.19 ab 4.31±0.39 b 5.19 ±0.13 c 0.243±0.025 ab
    C30 0.95±0.21 a 5.08±0.39 ab 5.58±0.17 b 0.127±0.016 cd
    C50 1.08±0.32 a 5.13±0.54 a 6.23±0.06 a 0.135±0.018 c
    PC15 0.88±0.26 ab 4.98±0.54 b 5.31±0.18 bc 0.214±0.026 bc
    同列数据后不同小写字母表示不同处理间差异显著(P<0.05)。表3~5同。
    Values followed by different lower-ase letters within the same column are significantly different at 0.05 level. Same for Table 35.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同畜禽粪便处理油菜叶片光合色素变化规律

    Table  3.   Temporal changes in pigment content of rape under different application rate of organic manures.

    处理
    Treatment
    叶绿素a
    Chl-a /(mg ·g−1)
    叶绿素b
    Chl-b/(mg·g−1)
    叶绿素a+叶绿素b
    Chl-a+ Chl-b/ (mg·g−1)
    叶绿素a/叶绿素b
    Chl-a/ Chl-b
    35天
    Day 35
    80天
    Day 80
    35天
    Day 35
    80天
    Day 80
    35天
    Day 35
    80天
    Day 80
    35天
    Day 35
    80天
    Day 80
    CK3.59±0.77 d5.11±1.10 cd1.32±0.31 d1.76±0.54 d4.92±1.12 e6.87±1.28 d2.72±0.26 ab2.91±0.27 a
    P104.53±1.12 bc6.45±1.27 bc1.82±0.39 bc2.42±0.68 c6.34±1.32 c8.87±1.51 c2.48±0.23 bc2.66±0.25 a
    P304.58±1.21 bc6.52±1.37 bc1.73±0.39 bc2.30±0.69 c6.31±1.40 c8.82±1.60 c2.65±0.25 ab2.83±0.27 a
    P506.19±1.83 b8.81±2.07 b2.09±0.54 b2.78±0.93 bc8.29±2.06 b11.59±2.35 b2.96±0.28 a3.17±0.30 a
    C106.48±1.87 ab9.23±2.11 ab2.24±0.56 ab2.97±0.97 bc8.72±2.12 ab12.21±2.42 ab2.89±0.27 a3.09±0.29 a
    C303.86±0.95 c5.49±1.07 c1.56±0.34 cd2.07±0.58 c5.42±1.13 cd7.57±1.28 c2.47±0.23 bc2.65±0.25 a
    C508.28±2.17 a11.79±2.46 a3.15±0.72 a4.19±1.25 a11.43±2.52 a15.98±2.88 a2.63±0.25 ab2.81±0.27 a
    PC156.26±1.59 ab8.91±1.79 b2.47±0.54 ab3.29±0.94 ab8.73±1.85 ab12.19±2.12 ab2.53±0.23 b2.71±0.26 a
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  不同畜禽粪便处理油菜光合特性变化规律

    Table  4.   Temporal changes in photosynthetic characteristics of rape under different application rate of organic manures.

    处理
    Treatment
    净光合速率 Pn/
    (μmol·m−2·s−1)
    蒸腾速率 Tr/
    ( mmol·m−2·s−1)
    气孔导度 Gs/
    ( mmol·m−2·s−1)
    胞间CO2浓度 Ci/
    (μmol·mol−1)
    水分利用效率 WUE/
    (mmol·mol−1)
    35天 Day 35 CK 3.32±0.15 d 1.35±0.37 d 128.00±4.38 d 319.03±3.17 a 1.08±0.21 d
    P10 11.27±0.91 ab 2.64±0.13 ab 178.33±11.05 b 254.67±10.71 b 4.31±0.41 b
    P30 11.76±0.35 a 2.73±0.13 a 177.67±10.40 b 240.33±7.45 bc 4.50±0.32 b
    P50 12.33±0.23 a 3.08±0.21 a 236.67±11.42 a 249.67±9.13 b 4.05±0.27 bc
    C10 7.93±0.68 c 1.89±0.15 c 134.67±7.33 cd 248.04±3.84 b 3.59±0.15 c
    C30 11.21±0.12 ab 2.20±0.01 bc 142.00±2.08 c 226.33±6.39 c 5.08±0.23 a
    C50 8.17±0.55 c 2.29±0.31 b 147.01±12.69 c 217.67±10.18 c 5.13±0.34 a
    PC15 10.60±0.57 b 2.67±0.03 ab 190.00±4.06 ab 257.02±11.08 b 3.98±0.25 bc
    80天 Day 80 CK 4.22±0.29 e 2.03±0.75 d 177.28±37.23 e 367.84±68.05 a 1.43±0.45 e
    P10 14.34±1.79 ab 3.97±0.52 ab 246.99±50.63 b 319.10±20.74 b 5.72±0.88 bc
    P30 14.96±0.69 a 4.10±0.53 a 246.07±78.74 b 301.13±19.57 bc 5.97±0.69 b
    P50 15.69±0.45 a 4.63±0.97 a 327.79±88.50 a 312.84±32.85 b 5.34±0.58 bc
    C10 10.09±1.33 d 2.84±0.43 b 186.52±27.98 d 310.79±23.31 b 4.76±0.32 d
    C30 14.26±0.24 a 3.30±0.03 c 196.67±45.23 cd 283.59±1.42 c 6.74±0.49 ab
    C50 10.39±1.08 d 3.44±1.06 bc 203.61±69.23 c 272.75±42.27 c 6.81±0.74 a
    PC15 13.49±1.11 bc 4.01±0.12 a 263.15±65.78 b 322.04±4.83 b 5.28±0.54 c
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  不同畜禽粪便处理油菜光合荧光参数变化规律

    Table  5.   Temporal changes in photosynthetic fluorescence characteristics of rape under different application rate of organic manure

    处理
    Treatment
    光化学最大量子产量
    Fv/Fm
    光合电子传递速率
    ΦPSII
    光化学淬灭系数
    qP
    光化学淬灭系数
    qN
    35天
    Day 35
    80天
    Day 80
    35天
    Day 35
    80天
    Day 80
    35天
    Day 35
    80天
    Day 80
    35天
    Day 35
    80天
    Day 80
    CK0.69±0.02 b0.84±0.01 c0.45±0.02 c0.61±0.11 c0.22±0.13 c0.34±0.10 c0.32±0.11 d0.24±0.05 d
    P100.73±0.01 a0.89±0.01 a0.51±0.04 b0.69±0.13 b0.48±0.07 a0.85±0.05 a0.81±0.13 b0.60±0.06 b
    P300.78±0.01 a0.95±0.02 a0.53±0.03 ab0.72±0.15 ab0.51±0.09 a0.85±0.06 a0.86±0.15 ab0.64±0.07 b
    P500.71±0.01 a0.86±0.01 b0.59±0.04 a0.80±0.08 a0.41±0.13 a0.72±0.08 a0.67±0.08 b0.50±0.04 b
    C100.75±0.01 a0.91±0.01 a0.60±0.02 a0.82±0.05 a0.33±0.02 a0.58±0.01 b0.40±0.05 c0.29±0.02 c
    C300.76±0.01 a0.92±0.01 a0.64±0.03 a0.87±0.12 a0.34±0.01 b0.60±0.01 b0.42±0.12 c0.31±0.06 c
    C500.72±0.02 a0.87±0.01 ab0.60±0.04 a0.82±0.13 a0.29±0.11 bc0.51±0.07 b0.37±0.13 c0.27±0.06 c
    PC150.73±0.02 a0.88±0.02 ab0.62±0.01 a0.84±0.21 a0.39±0.05 ab0.69±0.03 ab0.98±0.21 a0.73±0.09 a
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2023-04-17
  • 修回日期:  2023-07-07
  • 网络出版日期:  2024-03-28

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