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景天科多肉植物品种资源评价体系构建及应用

陈艺荃 罗远华 吴建设 林兵 叶秀仙

陈艺荃,罗远华,吴建设,等. 景天科多肉植物品种资源评价体系构建及应用 [J]. 福建农业学报,2024,39(X):1−11
引用本文: 陈艺荃,罗远华,吴建设,等. 景天科多肉植物品种资源评价体系构建及应用 [J]. 福建农业学报,2024,39(X):1−11
CHEN Y Q, LUO Y H, WU J S, et al. Construction and application of variety resources evaluation system for Crassulaceae plants [J]. Fujian Journal of Agricultural Sciences,2024,39(X):1−11
Citation: CHEN Y Q, LUO Y H, WU J S, et al. Construction and application of variety resources evaluation system for Crassulaceae plants [J]. Fujian Journal of Agricultural Sciences,2024,39(X):1−11

景天科多肉植物品种资源评价体系构建及应用

基金项目: “5511”协同创新项目(XTCXGC2021016),福建省农科院特色花卉科技创新团队项目(CXTD2021010-2),福建省属公益科研院所基本科研专项(2018R1014-7 )。
详细信息
    作者简介:

    陈艺荃(1989 —),女,硕士研究生,助理研究员,研究方向:观赏植物种质资源评价研究(E-mail:yiquanchen1107@sina.com

    通讯作者:

    林兵(1973 —),男,副研究员,研究方向:观赏植物引种与栽培研究(E-mail:lb87572540@163.com

    叶秀仙(1977−),女,副研究员,研究方向:花卉育种与组织培养(E-mail:yxx7861@163.com

  • 中图分类号: S682.33

Construction and application of variety resources evaluation system for Crassulaceae plants

  • 摘要:   目的  旨在构建景天科多肉植物品种资源综合评价体系,筛选适宜福建省栽培的多肉植物品种,为多肉植物科学引种和推广栽培提供科学依据。  方法  基于48个多肉植物品种的园艺性状,采用AHP层次分析法和K-Means聚类分析法,从观赏特性、适应性、潜在应用价值3个层面构建综合评价体系,并进行品种等级划分。  结果  共确定14个影响多肉植物品种综合评价的关键指标,其中叶色、叶肉质化程度、越夏适应性、形姿和花期5个因子权重占总排序的61.2%,是多肉综合价值评判的关键因素。K-Means聚类分析将48个品种划分为优、良、中等和一般4个等级,其中,乌木、紫乐、阿尔巴佳人、奥普琳娜、丸叶红司、蓝苹果和碧桃等7个品种处于Ⅰ级优秀,爱星等14个品种处于Ⅱ级良好,优良品种占全部品种的43.75%,可重点繁育和推广栽培。  结论  应用AHP层次分析法和K-Means聚类分析法构建的品种资源评价体系可有效对景天科多肉植物品种进行综合评价,从而筛选出观赏特性与适应性兼具的品种。评价结果与试验地观测效果基本一致,该评价体系可为多肉植物科学引种和推广应用提供参考。
  • 图  1  景天科多肉植物温室栽培

    注:A:多肉植物资源圃; B:代表性彩叶品种,B1~B4分别为火祭 、红宝石、水蜜桃、奥普琳娜;C:代表性肉质叶品种,C1~C4分别为福娘、格林、桃美人、婴儿手指;D:代表性形姿奇特品种,D1~D4分别为山地玫瑰、柳叶莲华、万圣节法师、酥皮鸭。

    Figure  1.  Greenhouse cultivation experiment of Crassulaceae plants

    Note:A:Succulents resources garden. B:Representative colored leaf varieties, B1 to B4 are Crassula capitella‘Campfire’, Sedeveria pinkruby, Echeveria chihuahuaensis, Graptoveria 'Opalina'. C:Representative fleshy leaves varieties,C1 to C4 are Cotyledon orbiculata var.dinterix Graptoveria 'A Grim One 'Pachyphytum ‘Blue Haze’Pachyphytum rzedowskii García. D:Representative varieties with unique shapes and postures,D1 to D4 are Aeonium dodrantalexSedeveria ‘Hummellii’Aeonium 'Halloween'Echeveria supia.

    图  2  评价等级优良的21个景天科多肉品种

    Figure  2.  21 Crassulaceae varieties with excellent evaluation level

    表  1  景天科多肉植物品种资源

    Table  1.   Crassulaceae variety resources

    编号
    Code
    品种
    Variety
    属名
    Generic name
    编号
    Code
    品种
    Variety
    属名
    Generic name
    1 蓝苹果
    Echeveria ‘Blue Elf'
    拟石莲花属
    Echeveria DC.
    25 东云
    Echeveria agavoides Lemaire
    拟石莲花属
    Echeveria DC.
    2 丸叶松绿
    Sedum lucidum 'Obesum'
    景天属
    Sedum L.
    26 丸叶红司
    Echeveria nodulosa
    拟石莲花属
    Echeveria DC.
    3 筒叶花月
    Crassula oblique 'Gollum'
    青锁龙属
    Crassula L.
    27 水蜜桃
    Echeveria chihuahuaensis
    拟石莲花属
    Echeveria DC.
    4 火祭
    Crassula capitella‘Campfire’
    青锁龙属
    Crassula L.
    28 劳尔
    Sedum clavatum R.T.Clausen
    景天属
    Sedum L.
    5 蒂亚
    xSedeveria 'Letizia'
    景天和拟石莲花属杂交
    xSedeveria
    29 紫乐
    Graptopetalum 'Purple Delight'
    风车草属
    Graptopetalum Rose
    6 奥普琳娜
    Graptoveria 'Opalina'
    风车草属
    Graptopetalum Rose
    30 达摩宝珠
    Sedum dendroideum
    景天属
    Sedum L.
    7 塔洛克
    Sedum‘Joyce Tulloch’
    景天属
    Sedum L.
    31 万圣节法师
    Aeonium 'Halloween'
    莲花掌属
    Aeonium Webb & Berthel.
    8 乌木
    Echeveri agavoides 'Ebony'
    拟石莲花属
    Echeveria DC.
    32 白美人
    Pachyphytum oviferum
    厚叶草属
    Pachyphytum Link
    9 星王子
    Crassula perforata
    青锁龙属
    Crassula L.
    33 红钻
    Sempervivum
    莲花掌属
    Aeonium Webb & Berthel.
    10 红稚莲
    Echeveria ‘Minibelle’
    拟石莲花属
    Echeveria DC.
    34 漫画汤姆
    Sedum Comic Tom
    景天属
    Sedum L.
    11 红宝石
    Sedeveria pink ruby
    景天和拟石莲花属杂交
    xSedeveria
    35 虹之玉
    Sedum x rubrotinctum Clausen
    景天属
    Sedum L.
    12 爱星
    Crassula rupestris f.
    青锁龙属
    Crassula L.
    36 子持白莲
    Echeveria prolifica
    拟石莲花属
    Echeveria DC.
    13 唐印
    Kalanchoe thyrsifolia
    伽蓝菜属
    Kalanchoe Adans.
    37 雪兔
    Echeveria snow bunny
    拟石莲花属
    Echeveria DC.
    14 黑爪
    Echeveria cuspidata var.zaragozae Kimnach
    拟石莲花属
    Echeveria DC.
    38 柳叶莲华
    xSedeveria ‘Hummellii’
    景天和拟石莲花属杂交
    xSedeveria
    15 碧桃
    Echeveria 'Peach Pride'
    拟石莲花属
    Echeveria DC.
    39 绮罗
    Echeveria ‘Luella’
    拟石莲花属
    Echeveria DC.
    16 酥皮鸭
    Echeveria supia
    拟石莲花属
    Echeveria DC.
    40 婴儿手指
    Pachyphytum rzedowskii García
    厚叶草属
    Pachyphytum Link
    17 沙漠之星
    Echeveria shaviana ‘Truffles’
    拟石莲花属
    Echeveria DC.
    41 乒乓福娘
    Cotyledon orbiculata ‘Oophylla'
    银波锦属
    Cotyledon Tourn. ex L.
    18 锦晃星
    Echeveria pulvinata
    拟石莲花属
    Echeveria DC.
    42 厚叶月影
    Echeveria elegans var. kesselringiana
    拟石莲花属
    Echeveria DC.
    19 春萌
    Sedum 'Alice Evans'
    景天属
    Sedum L.
    43 静夜
    Echeveria derenbergii
    拟石莲花属
    Echeveria DC.
    20 露娜莲
    Echeveria 'Lola'
    拟石莲花属
    Echeveria DC.
    44 铭月
    Sedum adolphi
    景天属
    Sedum L.
    21 桃美人
    Pachyphytum ‘Blue Haze’
    厚叶草属
    Pachyphytum Link
    45 菲欧娜
    Echeveria Fiona
    拟石莲花属
    Echeveria DC.
    22 晚霞
    Echeveria Afterglow
    拟石莲花属
    Echeveria DC.
    46 格林
    x Graptoveria 'A Grim One '
    风车草属
    Graptopetalum Rose
    23 阿尔巴佳人
    Echeveria ‘Alba Beauty’
    拟石莲花属
    Echeveria DC.
    47 山地玫瑰
    Aeonium dodrantale
    莲花掌属
    Aeonium Webb & Berthel.
    24 墨西哥雪球
    Echeveria ‘Mexican Snowball’
    拟石莲花属
    Echeveria DC.
    48 冰莓
    Echeveria Rasberry ice
    拟石莲花属
    Echeveria DC.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  景天科多肉植物品种综合评价结构体系

    Table  2.   Comprehensive evaluation structure system of Crassulaceae plant varieties

    目标层(Z)
    Target layer(Z)
    约束层(C)
    Constraint layer(C)
    标准层(P)
    Standart layer(P)
    最底层(D)
    Bottom layer(D)
    景天科多肉植物品种综合评价
    Comprehensive evaluation of
    Crassulaceae plant varieties
    观赏特性(C1)
    Ornamental
    characteristics
    叶色(P1) Leaf color 待评价的多肉品种资源集合
    Collection of Crassulaceae plant varieties
    resources to be evaluated
    叶肉质化程度(P2) The succulent level of leaves
    形姿(P3) Shape and posture
    花期(P4) Florescence
    花密度(P5) Flower density
    花色(P6) Flower color
    适应性(C2) Adaptability 越夏适应性(P7) Summer adaptability
    越冬适应性(P8) Overwintering adaptability
    耐旱性(P9) Drought resistance
    耐涝性 (P10) Waterlogging resistance
    抗病害能力(P11) Disease resistance
    生长势(P12) Growth potential
    潜在应用价值(C3)
    Potential application
    value
    栽培管理难易程度(P13)
    Difficulty of cultivation and management
    香气(P14) Aroma
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  景天科多肉植物各评价因子的评分标准

    Table  3.   Scoring standards of evaluation factors for Crassulaceae plants

    因子
    Factor
    评价分值 Evaluation score
    4 3 2 1
    叶色(P1)
    Leaf color
    彩叶(叶色>3种),叶缘红边
    明显
    Colorful leaves (leaf color > 3 kinds), with obvious red edges
    彩叶(叶色>2种),叶缘红边较明显
    Colorful leaves (leaf color > 2 kinds), with obvious red edges
    彩叶(叶色1~2种),无明显红边
    Colorful leaves (1 ~ 2 kinds of leaf colors), without obvious red edge
    叶色较淡,纯色,无
    红边
    Light and solid leaves,without red edge
    叶肉质化程度(P2)
    The succulent level of leaves
    肥厚、肉质
    Plump and fleshy
    较肥厚
    Less plump
    中等
    Medium

    Thin
    形姿(P3)
    Shape and posture
    奇特、优美、紧凑
    Peculiar, beautiful and compact
    优美、较紧凑
    Beautiful and compact
    一般
    Average
    松散
    Loose
    花期(P4)
    Florescence
    >150 120~150 90~120 <90
    花密度(P5)
    Flower density
    极繁密
    Extremely dense
    繁密
    Dense
    中密
    Medium dense
    稀疏
    Sparse
    花色(P6)
    Flower color
    花色>3种,浓艳、独特
    More than 3 colors, colorful and unique
    花色>2种,较艳
    More than 2 colors, colorful
    纯色,花色较淡
    Solid and light color
    纯色,花色淡, 无光泽
    Solid,light and dull color
    越夏适应性(P7)
    Summer adaptability
    无热害,存活率>85%
    No heat damage and survival rate>85%
    10%~30% 热害,存活率为75%~85%
    10%~30% heat damage and survival rate is 75% to 85%
    30%~50% 受热害,存活率为60%~75%
    30%~50% heat damage and survival rate is 60% to 75%
    >50% 受热害,存活率<60%
    >50% heat damage and survival rate<60%
    越冬适应性(P8)
    Overwintering adaptability
    无寒害,存活率>85%
    No cold damage and survival rate>85%
    10%~30% 寒害,存活率为75%~85%
    10%~30% cold damage
    and survival rate is 75% to 85%
    30%~50% 受寒害,存活率为60%~75%
    30%~50% cold damage
    and survival rate is 60% to 75%
    >50% 受寒害,存活率<60%
    >50% cold damage, and survival rate<60%
    耐旱性(P9)
    Drought resistance
    强 Strong 较强 Strong 中等 Moderately 弱 Weak
    耐涝性 (P10)Waterlogging resistance 强 Strong 较强 Strong 中等 Moderately 弱 Weak
    抗病害能力(P11)
    Disease resistance
    危害程度小于整株的15%The degree of harm is less than 15% of the entire plant 危害程度小于整株的30%
    The degree of harm is less than 30% of the entire plant
    危害程度小于整株50% The degree of harm is less than 50% of the entire plant 危害程度大于整株 50%,死亡率>50%The degree of harm is greater than 50% of the entire plant, and the mortality rate is greater than 50%
    生长势(P12)
    Growth potential
    新梢萌发能力强,生长速度快
    Strong sprouting ability and fast growth rate of new shoots
    新梢萌发能力较强,生长速度较快
    Less strong sprouting ability and fast growth rate of new shoots
    新梢萌发能力一般,生长速度中等
    Sprouting ability of new shoots is average and moderate growth rate of new shoots
    不能萌发新梢、生长缓慢
    Unable to sprout new shoots and slow growth rate of new shoots
    栽培管理难易程度(P13)
    Difficulty of cultivation and management
    极易栽培
    Very easy to cultivate
    易栽培
    Easy to cultivate
    仅适合温室栽培
    Only suitable for greenhouse cultivation
    对栽培环境要求严苛,本土栽培困难
    Cultivation environment is strict and local cultivation is difficult
    香气(P14)
    Aroma
    浓香、甜香
    Strong and sweet
    fragrance
    淡香
    Light fragrance
    微香
    Slightly fragrance
    无香味
    Fragrance-free
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  判断矩阵一致性检验及各层次综合赋权结果

    Table  4.   The results of Judgment matrix,consistency test and ranking weight of indicators

    层次体系
    Hierarchical model
    判断矩阵
    Judgement matrix
    权重Wi 总排序权重Q
    Total ranking
    一致性检验
    Consistency test
    Z-Ci Z C1 C2 C3
    C1 1 2 5 0.5695
    C2 1/2 1 4 0.3331 λmax=3.0246
    C3 1/5 1/4 1 0.0974 CR=0.0212<0.1
    C1-Pi C1 P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6
    P1 1 1 2 2 3 4 0.2739 0.1560
    P2 1 1 2 2 3 4 0.2739 0.1560
    P3 1/2 1/2 1 1 2 3 0.1537 0.0876
    P4 1/2 1/2 1 1 2 3 0.1537 0.0876
    P5 1/3 1/3 1/2 1/2 1 2 0.0888 0.0505 λmax=6.0413
    P6 1/4 1/4 1/3 1/3 1/2 1 0.0559 0.0318 CR=0.0067<0.1
    C2-Pi C2 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12
    P7 1 2 3 4 4 5 0.3751 0.1249
    P8 1/2 1 2 3 3 4 0.2436 0.0811
    P9 1/3 1/2 1 2 2 3 0.1505 0.0501
    P10 1/4 1/3 1/2 1 1 2 0.0886 0.0295
    P11 1/4 1/3 1/2 1 1 2 0.0886 0.0295 λmax=6.0718
    P12 1/5 1/4 1/3 1/2 1/2 1 0.0538 0.0179 CR=0.0116<0.1
    C3-Pi C3 P13 P14
    P13 1 2 0.6667 0.0649 λmax=2
    P14 1/2 1 0.3333 0.0325 CR=0<0.1
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  景天科多肉综合评价及其评分等级

    Table  5.   The comprehensive evaluation value and grade determination of Crassulaceae plants

    编号
    Code
    品种
    Variety
    总分
    Synthesis score
    等级
    Grade
    编号
    Code
    品种
    Variety
    总分
    Synthesis score
    等级
    Grade
    1 蓝苹果
    Echeveria ‘Blue Elf'
    3.12 25 东云
    Echeveria agavoides Lemaire
    2.82
    2 丸叶松绿
    Sedum lucidum 'Obesum'
    2.70 26 丸叶红司
    Echeveria nodulosa
    3.19
    3 筒叶花月
    Crassula oblique 'Gollum'
    2.44 27 水蜜桃
    Echeveria chihuahuaensis
    2.58
    4 火祭
    Crassula capitella‘Campfire’
    2.57 28 劳尔
    Sedum clavatum R.T.Clausen
    2.23
    5 蒂亚
    xSedeveria 'Letizia'
    2.83 29 紫乐
    Graptopetalum 'Purple Delight'
    3.36
    6 奥普琳娜
    Graptoveria 'Opalina'
    3.21 30 达摩宝珠
    Sedum dendroideum
    2.56
    7 塔洛克
    Sedum‘Joyce Tulloch’
    2.43 31 万圣节法师
    Aeonium 'Halloween'
    2.52
    8 乌木
    Echeveri agavoides 'Ebony'
    3.57 32 白美人
    Pachyphytum oviferum
    2.99
    9 星王子
    Crassula perforata
    2.52 33 红钻
    Sempervivum
    2.18
    10 红稚莲
    Echeveria ‘Minibelle’
    2.96 34 漫画汤姆
    Sedum Comic Tom
    2.71
    11 红宝石
    Sedeveria pink ruby
    2.41 35 虹之玉
    Sedum x rubrotinctum Clausen
    1.33
    12 爱星
    Crassula rupestris f.
    2.99 36 子持白莲
    Echeveria prolifica
    1.79
    13 唐印
    Kalanchoe thyrsifolia
    2.72 37 雪兔
    Echeveria snow bunny
    1.78
    14 黑爪
    Echeveria cuspidata var.zaragozae Kimnach
    2.93 38 柳叶莲华
    xSedeveria ‘Hummellii’
    1.65
    15 碧桃
    Echeveria 'Peach Pride'
    3.11 39 绮罗
    Echeveria ‘Luella’
    1.50
    16 酥皮鸭
    Echeveria supia
    2.62 40 婴儿手指
    Pachyphytum rzedowskii García
    2.46
    17 沙漠之星
    Echeveria shaviana ‘Truffles’
    2.84 41 乒乓福娘
    Cotyledon orbiculata ‘Oophylla'
    2.84
    18 锦晃星
    Echeveria pulvinata
    2.45 42 厚叶月影
    Echeveria elegans var. kesselringiana
    2.89
    19 春萌
    Sedum 'Alice Evans'
    2.90 43 静夜
    Echeveria derenbergii
    1.56
    20 露娜莲
    Echeveria 'Lola'
    2.49 44 铭月
    Sedum adolphi
    2.83
    21 桃美人
    Pachyphytum ‘Blue Haze’
    2.56 45 菲欧娜
    Echeveria Fiona
    2.31
    22 晚霞
    Echeveria Afterglow
    2.09 46 格林
    x Graptoveria 'A Grim One '
    2.42
    23 阿尔巴佳人
    Echeveria ‘Alba Beauty’
    3.22 47 山地玫瑰
    Aeonium dodrantale
    1.54
    24 墨西哥雪球
    Echeveria ‘Mexican Snowball’
    2.39 48 冰莓
    Echeveria Rasberry ice
    2.43
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2023-11-27
  • 修回日期:  2024-01-10
  • 网络出版日期:  2024-03-28

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