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黑木耳水提物和粗多糖溶液的流变特性及饮料开发

吴俐 陈寿辉 李怡彬 赖谱富 肖正 陈君琛

吴俐,陈寿辉,李怡彬,等. 黑木耳水提物和粗多糖溶液的流变特性及饮料开发 [J]. 福建农业学报,2023,38(10):1163−1175 doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.10.005
引用本文: 吴俐,陈寿辉,李怡彬,等. 黑木耳水提物和粗多糖溶液的流变特性及饮料开发 [J]. 福建农业学报,2023,38(10):1163−1175 doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.10.005
WU L, CHEN S - H, LI Y - B, et al. Rheological Properties of Water Extract and Crude Polysaccharide Solution of Auricularia auricula and Beverage Development [J]. Fujian Journal of Agricultural Sciences,2023,38(10):1163−1175 doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.10.005
Citation: WU L, CHEN S - H, LI Y - B, et al. Rheological Properties of Water Extract and Crude Polysaccharide Solution of Auricularia auricula and Beverage Development [J]. Fujian Journal of Agricultural Sciences,2023,38(10):1163−1175 doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.10.005

黑木耳水提物和粗多糖溶液的流变特性及饮料开发

doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.10.005
基金项目: 福建省农业高质量发展超越“5511”协同创新工程项目(XTCXGC2021014);福建省现代食用菌产业技术体系建设项目(闽财指〔2019〕897号);福建省科技计划项目(2023R1099、2023R1100、2023R1030005、2022C0028);福建省农业科学院科技创新团队建设项目(CXTD2021018-2);福建省农业科学院青年英才项目(YC2021012)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    吴俐(1985 —),女,博士,助理研究员,主要从事食用菌加工技术及功能食品研究,E-mail:565108633@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    陈君琛(1959— ),男,研究员,主要从事食用菌精深加工技术研究,E-mail: junchencc@sina.com

  • 中图分类号: S646.9

Rheological Properties of Water Extract and Crude Polysaccharide Solution of Auricularia auricula and Beverage Development

  • 摘要:   目的  研究黑木耳水提物(Auricularia auricula water extract, AWE)和黑木耳粗多糖(Auricularia auricula crude polysaccharide, ACP)溶液的流变特性,优化饮料配方,为黑木耳饮料的开发提供科技支撑。  方法  观察不同质量浓度和均质压力下AWE和ACP溶液的流变特性;采用单因素和正交试验优化黑木耳饮料配方。  结果  0.3%~1.5%的AWE与ACP溶液都具有明显的剪切稀化特征,表现为假塑性流体,且为非牛顿流体;随着AWE与ACP质量浓度的降低,其流动行为指数增加,稠度系数降低(P < 0.05),0.3%~ 0.6%AWE溶液和0.3%ACP溶液呈现稳定的流体特性。4~12 MPa均质处理显著提高0.6%AWE和ACP溶液的流动行为指数,同时降低稠度系数,均呈现稳定的流体特性;相同均质压力下0.6%AWE比ACP溶液的黏度更低、流动性更佳。8 MPa均质压力处理的0.6% AWE溶液的平均粒径(6.51 ± 0.02 )μm和稳定系数(0.926 ± 0.024)达到平衡。单因素和正交试验优化黑木耳饮料配方为:AWE 0.6%、冰糖6%以及柠檬酸0.1%;饮料呈浅褐色,具黑木耳特有风味,口感细腻丝滑。  结论  0.3%~1.5%AWE和ACP溶液均为假塑性流体,且为非牛顿流体;4~12 MPa均质提高了0.6%的AWE和ACP溶液流动性,8MPa均质处理0.6%AWE溶液体系的稳定性最佳,从而确定黑木耳饮料加工以0.6%AWE为生产原料,采用8 MPa作为均质压力。黑木耳饮料最佳配方为:AWE 0.6%、冰糖6%以及柠檬酸0.1%。
  • 图  1  黑木耳饮料生产工艺流程

    Figure  1.  Production process of A. auricula beverage

    图  2  不同质量浓度AWE和ACP溶液的流变特性曲线

    A:AWE溶液;B:ACP溶液。图3、5同。

    Figure  2.  Rheological characteristic curves of AWE and ACP solutions with different concentrations

    A: AWE solution ; B: ACP solution.The same as Fig.3、5

    图  3  不同质量浓度AWE和ACP溶液的线性黏弹区

    Figure  3.  Linear viscoelastic zones of AWE and ACP solutions at different concentrations

    图  4  不同质量浓度AWE和ACP溶液在角频率下储存模量、损耗模量和损耗角正切的变化

    A~C:0.6%的AWE溶液的储存模量、损耗模量和损耗角正切;D~F:0.6%ACP溶液的储存模量、损耗模量和损耗角正切。

    Figure  4.  Changes of storage modulus, loss modulus and loss tangent of AWE and ACP solution with different mass concentration

    A~C: Storage modulus, loss modulus and loss tangent of 0.6% AWE solution. D~F: Storage modulus, loss modulus and loss tangent of 0.6% ACP solution.

    图  5  不同质量浓度AWE和ACP溶液的黏温曲线

    Figure  5.  Variation of viscosity of different concentration of AWE and ACP solution with temperature

    图  6  不同均质压力下AWE和ACP溶液的流变特性曲线

    A:0.6%的AWE溶液;B:0.6%的ACP溶液。图8同。

    Figure  6.  Rheological characteristic curves of AWE and ACP solution under different homogenization pressure

    A: 0.6% AWE solution; B: 0.6% ACP solution.The same as Fig.8.

    图  7  不同均质压力下AWE和ACP储存模量、损耗模量和损耗角正切的变化

    A~C:0.6%的AWE溶液的储存模量、损耗模量和损耗角正切;D~F:0.6%的ACP溶液的储存模量、损耗模量和损耗角正切。

    Figure  7.  Changes of storage modulus, loss modulus and loss tangent of A. auricula solution under different homogeneous pressures

    A~C: Storage modulus, loss modulus and loss tangent of 0.6% AWE solution. D~F: Storage modulus, loss modulus and loss tangent of 0.6% ACP solution.

    图  8  不同均质压力下AWE和ACP黏度随温度的变化

    Figure  8.  Variation of the viscosity of A. auricula solution with temperature under different homogenization pressures

    图  9  不同均质压力对平均粒径与稳定系数的影响

    同一指标不同小写字母表示差异显著(P<0.05),图1011同。

    Figure  9.  Effect of different homogenization pressure on average particle size and stability coefficient

    Different letters on the same index mean significant difference (P<0.05). The same for Fig.10, 11.

    图  10  冰糖添加量对感官评分的影响

    Figure  10.  The effect of rock sugar addition on sensory score

    图  11  柠檬酸添加量对感官评分的影响

    Figure  11.  Effect of citric acid addition on sensory score

    表  1  正交试验因素和水平

    Table  1.   Factors and levels of orthogonal tests

    水平
    Levels
    A黑木耳水提物
    AWE/%
    B柠檬酸
    Citric acid/%
    C冰糖
    Rock sugar/%
    10.30.055
    20.60.106
    30.90.157
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  黑木耳饮料感官质量评分标准

    Table  2.   Sensory quality scoring criteria for wood ear beverage

    评分指标
    Scoring indicators
    评分标准
    Scoring criteria
    评分
    Score/分
    色泽(3分)
    Color (3 points)
    均匀一致的淡褐色 2~3
    淡褐色或深褐色,颜色较深或较浅,不够均匀 1~2
    颜色过深或过浅且不均匀 0~1
    黏稠度(3分)
    Viscosity (3 points)
    粘稠适中 2~3
    过于黏稠 0~2
    无黏稠感 0~2
    风味(4分)
    Flavor (4 points)
    有淡淡黑木耳风味,香气和谐,酸甜适中,味清口爽 3~4
    黑木耳风味稍显不足,偏甜、偏酸或
    偏淡
    2~3
    香气和滋味不协调,太甜、太酸或
    太淡
    0~1
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同质量浓度AWE和ACP溶液的Power Law方程拟合参数

    Table  3.   Parameters for fitting the Power Law equation for different concentration of AWE and ACP solution

    溶液
    Solution
    质量浓度
    Concent/%
    稠度系数k
    Consistency
    coefficient k/
    (Pa·sn)
    流动行为指数n
    Flow behavior
    index n
    相关系数R2
    Correlation
    coefficient R2
    黑木耳水提物
    AWE
    0.367.70±1.34 e0.69±0.01 a0.983
    0.6242.83±3.58 d0.57±0.01 b0.9959
    0.9602.40±7.98 c0.48±0.01 c0.9981
    1.21084.93±11.82 b0.41±0.01 d0.9991
    1.51614.24±22.36 a0.38±0.01 d0.9987
    黑木耳粗多糖
    ACP
    0.3231.91±4.14 e0.62±0.01 a0.9916
    0.6980.69±11.85 d0.49±0.01 b0.9983
    0.92531.91±24.42 c0.41±0.01 c0.9993
    1.24692.93±38.90 b0.39±0.00 c0.9995
    1.57138.29±28.68 a0.35±0.00 d0.9999
    同列数据后不同小写字母表示不同处理间差异显著(P < 0.05),下同。
    Different lowercase letters superscribing the same indicator in the same column indicate significant differences (P < 0.05), the same below.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  不同均质压力下0.6%AWE和ACP溶液的 Power Law方程拟合参数

    Table  4.   Parameters for fitting the Power Law equation of 0.6% AWE and ACP solution under different homogenization pressures

    溶液
    Solution
    均质压力
    Homogeneous
    pressure/MPa
    稠度系数k
    Consistency
    coefficient k/
    (Pa·sn)
    流动行为指数n
    Flow behavior
    index n
    相关系数 R2
    Correlation
    coefficient
    R2
    黑木耳水提物
    AWE
    0242.83 ± 3.58 a0.57 ± 0.01 c0.9959
    493.89 ± 2.12 b0.76 ± 0.01 b0.9639
    851.99 ± 2.61 c0.85 ± 0.02 a0.7339
    1243.40 ± 0.69 d0.81 ± 0.01 a0.9725
    黑木耳粗多糖
    ACP
    0980.69 ± 11.85 a0.50 ± 0.01 d0.9983
    4462.41 ± 11.83 b0.63 ± 0.01 c0.9824
    8179.54 ± 4.79 c0.75 ± 0.01 b0.9545
    1285.60 ± 3.37 d0.83 ± 0.02 a0.8461
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  L9(33)正交试验结果

    Table  5.   L9 (33) Orthogonal design scheme and results

    试验号
    Test number
    A黑木耳水提物
    AWE
    B冰糖
    Rock
    sugar
    C柠檬酸
    Citric
    acid
    感官评分
    Sensory score
    11116.7±0.2
    21227.3±0.3
    31337.1±0.1
    42238.0±0.5
    52317.9±0.3
    62128.2±0.4
    73327.4±0.1
    83136.9±0.2
    93217.2±0.4
    K121.1021.8021.80
    K224.1022.5022.90
    K321.5022.4022.00
    k17.037.277.27
    k28.037.507.63
    k37.177.477.33
    极小值
    Minimum value
    7.037.277.27
    极大值
    Maximum value
    8.037.507.63
    极差R
    Range R
    1.000.230.37
    主次因素
    Primary and
    secondary factors
    A > C > B
    最优组合
    Optimal combination
    A2C2B2
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  方差分析结果

    Table  6.   Results of variance analysis

    方差来源
    Source
    平方和
    Sum of
    squares
    自由度
    Degree of
    freedom
    均方
    Mean
    square
    F
    F value
    P
    P value
    A1.7688920.884449.750.0197 *
    B0.0955620.04782.68750.2712
    C0.2288920.11446.43750.1345
    D空白
    D Blank
    0.0355620.0178
    总和
    Total
    0.36
    “*”表示在0.05水平差异显著。
    "*" indicates a significant difference at the 0.05 level.
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2023-08-03
  • 修回日期:  2023-09-10
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-11-20
  • 刊出日期:  2023-10-28

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