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西洋参茎叶提取物对鹌鹑生长性能和肌肉品质的影响

葛楠 肖开颜 王江木 刘持 刘新月 马晴 苏凤艳

葛楠,肖开颜,王江木,等. 西洋参茎叶提取物对鹌鹑生长性能和肌肉品质的影响 [J]. 福建农业学报,2023,38(12):1395−1404 doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.12.002
引用本文: 葛楠,肖开颜,王江木,等. 西洋参茎叶提取物对鹌鹑生长性能和肌肉品质的影响 [J]. 福建农业学报,2023,38(12):1395−1404 doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.12.002
GE N, XIAO K Y, WANG J M, et al. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Panax quinquefolium Stems and Leaves in Diet on Growth and Meat Quality of Quails [J]. Fujian Journal of Agricultural Sciences,2023,38(12):1395−1404 doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.12.002
Citation: GE N, XIAO K Y, WANG J M, et al. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Panax quinquefolium Stems and Leaves in Diet on Growth and Meat Quality of Quails [J]. Fujian Journal of Agricultural Sciences,2023,38(12):1395−1404 doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.12.002

西洋参茎叶提取物对鹌鹑生长性能和肌肉品质的影响

doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.12.002
基金项目: 吉林省科技发展重点研发计划项目(20200404030YY)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    葛楠(1996 —),女,硕士,主要从事林业技术与产品开发研究,E-mail:875535868@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    苏凤艳(1973 —),女,博士,教授,主要从事中兽药产品开发与中药废弃物利用研究,E-mail:sufy110@163.com

  • 中图分类号: S965.3;S816.7

Effects of Aqueous Extract of Panax quinquefolium Stems and Leaves in Diet on Growth and Meat Quality of Quails

  • 摘要:   目的  探讨西洋参茎叶提取物对鹌鹑生长性能、肌肉品质的影响,为西洋参茎叶作为添加剂开发利用提供依据。  方法  将150只1日龄鹌鹑,随机分成5组,每组3个重复,每个重复10只鹌鹑。空白对照组(CON)饲喂基础日粮,抗生素对照组(KSS)在基础日粮中添加阿莫西林(100 mg·kg−1),3个试验组在基础日粮中分别添加1%(SD)、1.5%(SZ)和2%(SG)西洋参茎叶提取物。试验期50 d,预饲期5 d,正饲期45 d。  结果  从鹌鹑生长性能来看,SZ组可显著提高鹌鹑平均日增质量(P<0.05),同时显著降低料肉比(P<0.05)。从鹌鹑肉嫩度来看,与CON组和KSS组相比,试验组鹌鹑胸肌与腿肌剪切力显著降低(P<0.05),肉嫩度均增强,其中SZ组肉嫩度最佳;从鹌鹑肉中营养成分来看,鹌鹑胸肌中蛋白质含量SG组显著高于CON组(P<0.05),SZ和SG组脂肪含量显著高于CON组和KSS组(P<0.05);鹌鹑腿肌中蛋白质含量SZ和SG组显著高于CON组和KSS组(P<0.05),脂肪含量SZ组显著高于CON组和KSS组(P<0.05);胸肌和腿肌中水分含量各组间差异不显著(P>0.05)。从鹌鹑肌肉中脂肪酸含量来看,与CON组相比,各试验组鹌鹑胸肌中不饱和脂肪酸含量降低不显著( P >0.05),SZ组鹌鹑腿肌中不饱和脂肪酸含量显著升高( P <0.05);从鹌鹑肌肉中肌苷酸含量来看,SZ组鹌鹑胸肌和腿肌中肌苷酸含量均显著高于KSS组( P <0.05);从鹌鹑肌肉中氨基酸含量来看,SD、SZ和SG组鹌鹑胸肌和腿肌中必需氨基酸和风味氨基酸含量均显著高于KSS组(P<0.05)。从H.E.染色结果来看,各试验组鹌鹑的肝肾组织结构均未见异常。鹌鹑生长激素(Growth hormone, GH)基因(GH基因)表达水平各试验组均显著高于CON组(P<0.05),且SZ组鹌鹑生长激素(GH)基因表达量最高。  结论  西洋参茎叶提取物可加速鹌鹑生长,改善肌肉品质,增加肌肉风味,且对肝肾发育无不良影响,安全性比较高,可代替抗生素作为中草药饲料添加剂进一步开发利用。
  • 图  1  西洋参茎叶提取物对鹌鹑肝脏组织结构的影响(×100倍)

    A:CON组;B:KSS组;C:SD组;D:SZ组;E:SG组。

    Figure  1.  Effect of P. quinquefolium extract on liver of quail (100×)

    A: CON group;B: KSS group;C: SD group;D: SZ group;E: SG group.

    图  2  西洋参茎叶提取物对鹌鹑肾脏组织结构的影响(×100倍)

    A:CON组;B:KSS组;C:SD组;D:SZ组;E:SG组。

    Figure  2.  Effect of P. quinquefolium extract on renal tissue of quail (100×)

    A: CON group; B: KSS group; C: SD group; D: SZ group; E: SG group.

    图  3  西洋参茎叶提取物对鹌鹑GH基因表达的影响

    不同字母代表组间显著差异(P<0.05),相同字母代表组间差异不显著(P>0.05)。

    Figure  3.  Effect of P. quinquefolium extract on GH expression in quails

    Data are mean±standard deviation; those with different lowercase letters represent significant difference at P<0.05; those with same letter indicate no significant difference at p>0.05.

    表  1  基础饲粮组成及营养成分水平

    Table  1.   Formulation and proximate analysis of experimental diets              (单位:g·kg−1

    组成
    Component
    项目
    Iterm
    0~20 d
    饲料
    0–20 d
    diet
    21~45 d
    饲料
    21–45 d
    diet
    原料
    Ingridients
    玉米 Corn540510
    大豆粕 Bean pulp270260
    米糠 Imported fishmeal10090
    骨粉 Rice bran50100
    禽用多维 Bone meal1515
    微量元素预混料
    Multivitamins trace elements premix
    2.52.5
    赖氨酸 Lysine2.52.5
    蛋氨酸 Methionine66
    食盐 Salt11
    石粉 Stone powder1212
    养分
    Nutrients
    粗蛋白 Crude protein243.8229.4
    钙 Ca44
    磷 P13.312.3
    粗脂肪 Crude fat146.3153.7
    粗纤维 Crude fiber34.325.3
    粗灰分 Crush ash61.069.1
    赖氨酸 Lysine11.28.7
    蛋氨酸 Methionine4.73.8
    微量元素预混料向饲料提供Mg 300 mg·kg−1、Mn 90 mg·kg−1、Zn 100 mg·kg−1、Cu 7 mg·kg−1、I 0.3 mg·kg−1、Fe 80 mg·kg−1
    Premixed forage contained 300 mg·kg−1 Mg, 90 mg·kg−1 Mn, 100 mg ·kg−1 Zn, 7 mg·kg−1 Cu, 0.3 mg·kg−1 I, and 80 mg·kg−1 Fe.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  西洋参茎叶提取物对鹌鹑生长性能的影响

    Table  2.   Effect of P. quinquefolium extract on growth of quails

    组别
    Group
    平均日增质量
    Average daily gain/
    (g·d−1
    平均日采食量
    Average daily feed intake/
    (g·d−1
    料肉比
    Feed-weight
    rate
    CON3.41±0.26b19.77±1.43a5.81±0.42a
    KSS3.5±0.39b19.64± 1.25a5.62±0.36a
    SD3.87±0.07ab19.77± 1.43a5.11±0.40a
    SZ4.08±0. 11a18.42± 1.45a4.51±0.36b
    SG3.82±0.26ab18.78± 1.37a4.92±0.36ab
    表中数据为平均值±标准偏差,不同小写字母代表组间差异显著(P<0.05)。下同。
    Data are mean±standard deviation; those with different lowercase letters represent significant difference at P<0.05. Same for below.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  西洋参茎叶提取物对鹌鹑胸肌和腿肌剪切力的影响

    Table  3.   Effect of P. quinquefolium extract on shear strength of quail pectoral and leg muscles

    组别
    Group
    剪切力 Shear force/N
    胸肌 Pectoral muscle腿肌 Leg muscle
    CON28.58±1.87a22.23±2.09a
    KSS17.88±1.32b15.20±1.99b
    SD13.06±0.98bc11.75±1.37c
    SZ10.90±0.91c9.70±1.72c
    SG14.31±1.34bc11.21±2.03c
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  西洋参茎叶提取物鹌鹑肌肉常规营养成分的影响

    Table  4.   Effect of P. quinquefolium extract on common nutrients in quail meat (单位:%)

    组别
    Group
    胸肌 Pectoralis 腿肌 Thigh muscle
    蛋白质
    Protein
    脂肪
    Fat
    水分
    Moisture
    蛋白质
    Protein
    脂肪
    Fat
    水分
    Moisture
    CON 21.94±2.31b 1.17±0.14b 72.37±6.47a 21.27±3.02b 1.16±0.13b 74.16±7.49a
    KSS 24.34±1.46a 1.27±0.11b 70.89±8.15a 21.41±2.69b 1.82±0.16b 74.53±9.24a
    SD 23.60±2.34ab 1.52±0.09ab 70.34±6.83a 23.07±2.48ab 2.71±0.05ab 72.98±10.01a
    SZ 23.97±1.65ab 1.77±0.15a 71.21±9.45a 23.94±1.94a 3.06±0.04a 73.08±6.17a
    SG 24.24±1.58a 1.70±0.17a 69.90±8.34a 23.72±3.02a 2.47±0.07ab 71.08±4.92a
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  西洋参茎叶提取物对鹌鹑胸肌中脂肪酸含量的影响

    Table  5.   Effect of P. quinquefolium extract on fatty acids in quail breast meat (单位:g·hg−1

    脂肪酸 Fatty acid   CONKSSSDSZSG
    肉豆蔻酸 Myristic acid
    棕榈酸 Palmitic acid 17.41±1.08a 18.29±0.66a 18.27±2.08a 19.39±2.08a 19.73±1.48a
    硬脂酸 Stearic acid 7.53±0.19b 14.57±0.26a 11.11±0.37a 13.31±0.44a 14.54±0.21a
    棕榈油酸 palmitoleic acid * 5.20±0.08a 2.95±0.06b 4.08±0.98a 4.47±0.88a 3.16±0.79ab
    油酸 Oleic acid * 27.74±1.05a 23.05±1.11b 26.69±1.89a 26.96± 1.39a 25.88±1.28a
    亚油酸 Linoleic acid ** 35.54±2.28a 32.86±2.66a 33.49±1.81a 33.19±2.16a 34.41±1.03a
    亚麻酸 Linolenic acid ** 1.96±0.08
    花生四烯酸 Arachidonic acid ** 2.65±0.12c 7. 19±0.61b 6.09±0.13b 6.74±0.64b 9.23±0.37a
    不饱和脂肪酸 Unsaturated fatty acids 73.09±4.07a 66.05±3.98b 72.40±3.67a 69.36±5.44ab 69.68±4.81ab
    *为单不饱和脂肪酸,**为多不饱和脂肪酸,—为未检出。表6同。
    * indicates monounsaturated fat acids; ** indicates unsaturated fat acids; - means not detected. Same for Table 6.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  西洋参茎叶提取物对鹌鹑腿肌中脂肪酸含量的影响

    Table  6.   Effect of P. quinquefolium extract on fatty acids in quail leg meat (单位:g·hg−1

    脂肪酸 Fatty acid CONKSSSDSZSG
    肉豆蔻酸 Myristic acid 0.34±0.03a
    棕榈酸 Palmitic acid 16.95±0.23b 19.81±0.37ab 20.76±0.36a 18.92±0.06ab 17.58±0.44ab
    硬脂酸 Stearic acid 8.61±0. 15c 13.32±0.51b 19.84±0.45a 9.09±0.21bc 15.62±0.32ab
    棕榈油酸 Palmitoleic acid * 2.89±0.14a 3.75±0.01a 2.24±0.02a 3.92±0.03a 2.53±0. 11a
    油酸 Oleic acid * 28.97±0.87a 24.84± 1.61b 26.67±0.17ab 28.02±0.06a 23.45± 1.21b
    亚油酸 Linoleic acid ** 35.08±0.27a 30.28±0.65b 31.24±0. 16b 35.02±0.38a 32.25± 1.05ab
    亚麻酸 Linolenic acid ** 1.81±0.04 1.72±0.09
    花生四烯酸 Arachidonic acid ** 4.11±0.22b 8.00±0.10a 9.27±0.12a 8.99±1.02a 8.59±0.37a
    不饱和脂肪酸 Unsaturated fatty acids 72.86±4.37b 66.87±3.77b 69.42±3.32b 77.67±2.24a 66.82±5.91b
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  西洋参茎叶提取物对鹌鹑肉中肌苷酸含量的影响

    Table  7.   Effect of P. quinquefolium extract on inosinic content in quail meat

    组别
    Group
    肌苷酸 Inosinic acid/(mg·kg−1
    胸肌
    Pectoral muscle
    腿肌
    Leg muscle
    CON1704.62±7.90b1381.65±4.77a
    KSS1707.59± 8.85b971.85±4.47b
    SD1962.23± 8.28a1285.06±3.26a
    SZ2001.24±4.42a1389.54±2.41a
    SG1734. 12± 11.38b1349.02±6.73a
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  8  西洋参茎叶提取物对鹌鹑胸肌中氨基酸含量的影响

    Table  8.   Effect of P. quinquefolium extract on amino acids in quail breast meat (单位:g·hg−1

    氨基酸 Amino acidsCONKSSSDSZSG
    谷氨酸 Glutamic acid3.52±0.11ab2.91±0.09b3.56±0.12ab3.85±0.13a3.63±0.25ab
    天冬氨酸 Aspartic acid2.21±0.13ab1.86±0.26b2.22±0.25ab2.43±0.05a2.26±0.54ab
    甘氨酸 Glycine1.12±0.11a1.44±0.21a1.10±0.31a1.15±0.19a0.99±0.06a
    丙氨酸 Alanine1.41±0. 23a1.18±0.09a1.39±0.09a1.49±0.13a1.33±0.09a
    酪氨酸 Tyrosine0.78±0.07a0.60± 0.04a0.85±0.17a0.92±0.05a0.92±0.21a
    苯丙氨酸 Phenylalanine*1.05±0.21a0.83±0.05a1.09±0. 11a1.04±0.18a1.06± 0.15a
    异亮氨酸 Isoleucine1.08±0.06a0.86±0.08a1.14±0.15a1.23±0.07a1.13±0.05a
    赖氨酸 Lysine*2.14±0.21ab1.78±0.11b2.15±0.13ab2.27±0.16a2.13±0.37ab
    缬氨酸 Valine *1.13±0.08a0.83±0.06a1.18±0.15a1.24±0.21a1.16±0.26a
    蛋氨酸 Methionine *0.61±0.06a0.50±0.08a0.62±0.11a0.73±0.09a0.65±0.04a
    苏氨酸 Threonine *0.96±0.06a0.88±0.08a1.09±0.04a1.17±0.05a1.10±0.09a
    丝氨酸 Serine0.87±0.05a0.68±0.09a0.98±0.11a1.04±0.03a0.97±0.08a
    亮氨酸 Leucine*2.06±0.15ab1.68±0.14b2.11±0.24ab2.27±0.19a2.13±0.27ab
    组氨酸 Histidine**0.67±0.11a0.51±0.04a0.70±0.08a0.76±0.16a0.72±0.14a
    精氨酸 Arginine**1.35±0.13b1.35±0.16b1.51±0.14ab1.61±0.15a1.49±0.09ab
    脯氨酸 Proline0.46±0.02b1.40±0.06a0.81±0.03ab0.93±0.05a0.94±0.07a
    总氨基酸 Total amino acids21.42±2.05ab19.29±1.95b22.50±2.31ab24.13±3.01a22.61±3.47ab
    必需氨基酸 Essential amino acids9.03±1.01a7.36±0.96b9.38±0.76a9.95±.088a9.36±1.24a
    风味氨基酸 Flavor amino acids10.09±0.65a8.82±0.78b10.21±0.21a10.88±0.84a10.10±0.93a
    *为必需氨基酸;**为半必需氨基酸;#为风味氨基酸。表9同。
    * indicates essential amino acid; ** indicates semi-essential amino acid; indicates flavor amino acids. Same for Table 9.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  9  西洋参茎叶提取物对鹌鹑腿肌中氨基酸含量的影响

    Table  9.   Effect of P. quinquefolium extract on amino acids in quail leg meat (单位:g·hg−1

    氨基酸 Amino acidsCONKSSSDSZSG
    谷氨酸 Glutamic acid#2.00±0.23b1.84±0.26b3.51±0.31a3.85±0.13a3.34±0.21a
    天冬氨酸 Aspartic acid#1.28±0.24b1.11±0.27b2.02±0.25ab2.20±0.16a1.94±0.33ab
    甘氨酸 Glycine#0.64±0.05b0.58±0.11b1.17±0.23a1.03±0.09a0.81±0.02ab
    丙氨酸 Alanine#0.75±0.11b0.66±0.12b1.22±0.08a1.23±0.13a1.08±0.11ab
    酪氨酸 Tyrosine#0.53±0.02ab0.47± 0.03b0.89±0.05a0.87±0.06a0.77±0.05ab
    苯丙氨酸 Phenylalanine*#0.70±0.07b0.59±0.05b0.95±0.06a1.03±0.11a0.94± 0.05a
    异亮氨酸 Isoleucine0.72±0.04ab0.55±0.05b1.00±0.02a1.11±0.07a0.95±0.04a
    赖氨酸 Lysine*1.36±0.24b1.03±0.18b1.87±0.12a2.19±0.29a1.92±0.31a
    缬氨酸 Valine *0.71±0.12ab0.56±0.13b0.97±0.35a1.07±0.27a0.98±0.18a
    蛋氨酸 Methionine *0.36±0.04ab0.28±0.03b0.58±0.07ab0.64±0.05a0.59±0.03ab
    苏氨酸 Threonine *0.69±0.06ab0.53±0.04b0.97±0.08a1.05±0.04a0.96±0.06a
    丝氨酸 Serine0.56±0.02b0.49±0.03b0.94±0.03a0.98±0.06a0.87±0.05ab
    亮氨酸 Leucine*1.30±0.12b1.03±0.14b1.87±0.09a2.08±0.15a1.85±0.07a
    组氨酸 Histidine**0.34±0.02ab0.27±0.02b0.50±0.03ab0.59±0.02a0.53±0.04a
    精氨酸 Arginine**1.02±0.07bc0.69±0.05c1.46±0.04a1.52±0.07a1.26±0.11ab
    脯氨酸 Proline0.31±0.03b0.30±0.02b0.86±0.04a0.78±0.03a0.53±0.02ab
    总氨基酸 Total amino acids13.27±1.23b10.98±1.77b20.78±1.54a22.22±1.63a19.32±1.86a
    必需氨基酸 Essential amino acids5.84±0.42b4.57±0.51b8.21±0.57a9.17±0.85a8.19±0.83a
    风味氨基酸 Flavor amino acids5.90±0.95b5.25±0.83b9.76±1.03a10.21±0.89a8.88±0.77a
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2023-03-23
  • 修回日期:  2023-07-26
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-12-21
  • 刊出日期:  2023-12-28

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