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低蛋白饲粮添加Glu和Arg对断奶仔猪肠道代谢产物与菌群的影响

方桂友 刘景 郭庆 林长光 董志岩

方桂友,刘景,郭庆,等. 低蛋白饲粮添加Glu和Arg对断奶仔猪肠道代谢产物与菌群的影响 [J]. 福建农业学报,2023,38(10):1176−1184 doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.10.006
引用本文: 方桂友,刘景,郭庆,等. 低蛋白饲粮添加Glu和Arg对断奶仔猪肠道代谢产物与菌群的影响 [J]. 福建农业学报,2023,38(10):1176−1184 doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.10.006
FANG G Y, LIU J, GUO Q, et al. Effects of Low Protein Diet Supplemented with Glutamate and Arginine on Intestinal Metabolites and Microbiota of Weaned Piglets [J]. Fujian Journal of Agricultural Sciences,2023,38(10):1176−1184 doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.10.006
Citation: FANG G Y, LIU J, GUO Q, et al. Effects of Low Protein Diet Supplemented with Glutamate and Arginine on Intestinal Metabolites and Microbiota of Weaned Piglets [J]. Fujian Journal of Agricultural Sciences,2023,38(10):1176−1184 doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.10.006

低蛋白饲粮添加Glu和Arg对断奶仔猪肠道代谢产物与菌群的影响

doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.10.006
基金项目: 福建省科技计划公益类专项(2020R10260011、2023R1024007);福建省科技重大专项(2021NZ029023-5)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    方桂友(1972 —),男,硕士,副研究员,主要从事养猪生产新技术研究,E-mail:faasfgy@163.com

    刘景(1967 —),男,副研究员,主要从事畜禽饲料资源开发利用相关研究,E-mail:fjliuj@163.com

    通讯作者:

    董志岩(1965 —),男,研究员,主要从事猪饲料营养与开发相关研究,E-mail:2936237922@qq.com

  • 中图分类号: S828

Effects of Low Protein Diet Supplemented with Glutamate and Arginine on Intestinal Metabolites and Microbiota of Weaned Piglets

  • 摘要:   目的  探讨较大程度降低饲粮粗蛋白质(Crude protein,CP)水平后添加必需氨基酸、谷氨酸和精氨酸对断奶仔猪肠道代谢产物和微生物菌群的影响。  方法  试验选用192头、日龄(26±2) d的健康“杜长大”三元杂交断奶仔猪,平均初始体重为(6.96±0.29) kg,随机分成4个处理组,每组6个重复,每个重复8头猪,试验期16 d。组I为对照组,饲粮CP水平为21.16%;组II 为低CP饲粮组,饲粮CP水平为15.97%,补充必需氨基酸(L-赖氨酸、DL-蛋氨酸、L-苏氨酸、L-色氨酸、L-缬氨酸、L-异亮氨酸);组III在组II 基础上添加1.50%谷氨酸(Glu);组IV在组II 基础上添加1.50% Glu和1.00%精氨酸(Arg)。于正式试验期第11~13 d测定各处理断奶仔猪肠道代谢产物成分及微生物群落组成。  结果  组II 、组III和组IV断奶仔猪粪样腐胺和亚精胺含量均显著低于组I(P<0.05),组II、组III和组IV间差异不显著(P>0.05),尸胺含量组II 和组III显著低于组I和组IV(P<0.05),组I显著低于组IV(P<0.05),组II 和组III间差异不显著(P>0.05)。粪样乙酸和丙酸含量各组间差异不显著(P>0.05),丁酸含量组II 、组III和组IV显著高于组I(P<0.05),组II 、组III和组IV间差异不显著(P>0.05)。仔猪肠道菌群丰富度和多样性组II 、组III和组IV显著高于组I(P<0.05)。仔猪粪样菌群组成在门分类水平上,组II 、组III和组IV厚壁菌门(Firmicutes)相对丰度显著高于组I(P<0.05),拟杆菌门(Bacteroidetes)和变形菌门(Proteobacteria)相对丰度显著低于组I(P<0.05)。在科属分类水平上,各组菌群组成亦有较大差异,组II 、组III和组IV梭菌目下未明确的科和梭菌目下未明确的属相对丰度显著高于组I(P<0.05),普雷沃氏菌科(Prevotellaceae)、肠杆菌科(Enterobacteriaceae)和丁酸球菌属(Lachnospiraceae)相对丰度显著低于组I(P<0.05),组IV毛螺菌科(Lachnospiraceae)、乳杆菌科(Lactobacillaceae)和布劳特氏菌属(Blautia)、乳杆菌属(Lactobacillus)相对丰度显著高于组I(P<0.05),组IV消化链球菌科(Peptostreptococcaceae)和土孢杆菌属(Terrisporobacter)相对丰度显著低于组I(P<0.05)。  结论  将饲粮CP水平从21.16%降低至15.97%,平衡重要必需氨基酸并补充Glu+Arg,能降低断奶仔猪肠道生物胺含量,提高丁酸含量,增加肠道菌群多样性和丰富度,影响肠道菌群组成。
  • 图  1  粪样稀释性曲线和丰度等级曲线

    a、b分别为稀释性曲线和OTU丰度等级曲线。

    Figure  1.  Dilution and OTU rank-abundance curves of fecal samples

    a and b indicate dilution curve and OTU rank-abundance curve, respectively.

    图  2  粪样中优势菌群结构分布情况

    A、B、C分别表示肠道菌群在门水平、科水平、属水平上的结构组成。

    Figure  2.  Distribution of dominant fecal microbes

    A, B, C represented the distruction of fecal dominant microbiota at phylum level, family level, and genus level, respectively.

    表  1  饲粮组成与营养水平(风干基础)

    Table  1.   Nutritional composition of basal diets (on air-dry basis)

    项目
    Items
    组I(CK)
    Group I
    组II
    Group II
    组III
    Group III
    组IV
    Group IV
    原料 Ingredient
    玉米 Corn/% 35.12 48.00 47.00 45.00
    豆粕 Soybean meal/% 15.00 6.30 6.20 6.60
    膨化大豆
    Extruded soybean/%
    18.00 11.00 12.00 12.00
    麦麸 Wheat bran/% 1.70
    鱼粉 Fish meal/% 7.00 7.00 7.00 7.00
    乳清粉 Whey powder/% 16.00 16.00 16.00 16.00
    蔗糖 Sucrose/% 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00
    柠檬酸 Citric acid/% 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00
    豆油 Soybean oil/% 2.50 2.26 2.56 3.15
    石粉 Limestone/% 0.30 0.32 0.23 0.47
    磷酸氢钙 CaHPO4/% 0.54 0.72 0.82 0.60
    食盐 NaCl/% 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30
    氯化胆碱
    Choline chloride (50%)/%
    0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08
    L-赖氨酸盐酸盐
    L-lysine•HCL/%
    0.03 0.42 0.41 0.40
    DL-蛋氨酸
    DL-methionine/%
    0.09 0.15 0.15 0.15
    L-苏氨酸 L-threonine/% 0.03 0.20 0.20 0.20
    L-色氨酸 L-tryptophan/% 0.01 0.07 0.07 0.07
    L-缬氨酸 L-Valine/% 0.20 0.20 0.20
    L-异亮氨酸 L-isoleucine/% 0.21 0.20 0.20
    L-谷氨酸 L-glutamate/% 1.50 1.50
    L-精氨酸 L-arginine/% 1.00
    预混料 Premix/% 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
    合计 Total/% 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
    营养水平 Nutrient levels
    消化能
    Digestible energy/(MJ·kg−1
    14.99 14.42 14.39 14.39
    净能
    Net energy/(MJ·kg−1
    10.55 10.54 10.53 10.54
    粗蛋白质 Crude protein/% 21.16 15.97 15.93 15.95
    粗脂肪 EE/% 8.03 6.85 7.23 7.74
    中性洗涤纤维 NDF/% 7.50 7.45 6.82 6.67
    酸性洗涤纤维 ADF/% 5.40 5.37 5.12 5.00
    淀粉 Starch/% 24.89 32.01 31.20 30.98
    标准回肠可消化氨基酸 Standardized ileal digestible amino acids
    赖氨酸 Lys/% 1.09 1.09 1.09 1.09
    蛋氨酸 Met/% 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41
    蛋氨酸+胱氨酸 Met+Cys/% 0.65 0.65 0.65 0.65
    苏氨酸 Thr/% 0.69 0.69 0.69 0.69
    色氨酸 Trp/% 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23
    缬氨酸 Val/% 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80
    异亮氨酸 Ile/% 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74
    亮氨酸 Leu/% 1.41 1.14 1.14 1.13
    总谷氨酸 Total Glu/% 3.60 2.67 4.15 4.16
    总精氨酸 Total Arg/% 1.36 0.95 0.95 1.96
    ①预混料为每千克饲粮提供:维生素A 12 500.00 IU,维生素D3 2 500.00 IU,维生素E 80.00 mg,维生素K3 3.00 mg,维生素B1 2.50 mg,维生素B2 10.00 mg,维生素B6 3.00 mg,维生素B12 0.035 mg,烟酸 30.00 mg,泛酸 15.00 mg,叶酸 0.45 mg,生物素 0.50 mg,铁 140.00 mg,铜 15.00 mg,锌 140.00 mg,锰 30.00 mg, 碘 0.50 mg,硒 0.25 mg;②粗蛋白质为实测值,其他营养指标为计算值。
    ① Premix provided following nutrients in per kg of diet:VA 12 500.00 IU, VD3 2 500.00 IU, VE 80.00 mg, VK3 3.00 mg, VB1 2.50 mg; VB2 10.00 mg, VB6 3.00 mg, VB12 0.035 mg, nicotinic acid 30.00 mg, pantothenic acid 15.00 mg, folic acid 0.45 mg; biotin 0.50 mg, Fe 140.00 mg, Cu 15.00 mg, Zn 140.00 mg, Mn 30.00 mg, I 0.50 mg, Se 0.25 mg. ② CP is presented as measured; others, calculated values.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  低蛋白质饲粮添加谷氨酸和精氨酸对断奶仔猪粪样生物胺的影响

    Table  2.   Effects of low-protein diet supplemented with Glu + Arg on fecal biogenic amines of weaned piglets                   (单位:µg·g−1

    项目
    Items
    组I
    Group I
    组II
    Group II
    组III
    Group III
    组IV
    Group IV
    腐胺
    Putrescine
    36.10±1.45 a23.31±0.99 b25.63±0.61 b27.76±1.67 b
    尸胺
    Cadaverine
    8.66±0.48 b5.65±0.56 c5.44±0.22 c13.14±0.65 a
    亚精胺
    Spermidine
    57.86±2.21 a25.44±1.37 b31.46±1.39 b27.16±1.31 b
    同行数据后不同小写字母表示不同处理间差异显著(P <0.05),表3、4同。
    Data with different lowercase letters on same row indicate significant difference at P<0.05; those with same or no letter, no significant difference at P>0.05. Same for below.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  低蛋白质饲粮添加谷氨酸和精氨酸对断奶仔猪粪样短链脂肪酸的影响

    Table  3.   Effects of low-protein diet supplemented with Glu + Arg on fecal short-chain fatty acids of weaned piglets                 (单位:mg·g−1

    项目
    Items
    组I
    Group I
    组II
    Group II
    组III
    Group III
    组IV
    Group IV
    乙酸
    Acetic acid
    1.27±0.091.43±0.031.280±0.021.39±0.03
    丙酸
    Propionic acid
    0.78±0.010.81±0.030.88±0.020.77±0.01
    丁酸
    Butyric acid
    0.49±0.03 b0.56±0.04 a0.61±0.03 a0.64±0.02 a
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  低蛋白质饲粮添加谷氨酸和精氨酸对断奶仔猪肠道菌群多样性的影响

    Table  4.   Effects of low-protein diet supplemented with Glu + Arg on intestinal microflora diversity of weaned piglets

    项目
    Items
    组I
    Group I
    组II
    Group II
    组III
    Group III
    组IV
    Group IV
    物种数目 observed species 568.00±36.27 b 632.33±48.56 a 648.00±62.78 a 680.00±21.23 a
    测序深度 Coverage/% 99.99 99.99 99.99 99.98
    Shannon指数 Shannon index 4.68±0.18 b 4.92±0.04 ab 4.81±0.11 ab 5.05±0.13 a
    Simpson指数 Simpson index 0.93±0.01 a 0.86±0.02 b 0.85±0.02 b 0.86±0.05 b
    Chao1指数 Chao1 index 574.81±74.76 b 631.53±13.40 ab 629.60±17.09 ab 658.02±46.58 a
    ACE指数 ACE index 590.86±33.17 b 641.19±17.34 ab 646.50±19.77 ab 673.04±47.19 a
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-08-08
  • 修回日期:  2023-03-08
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-11-20
  • 刊出日期:  2023-10-28

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