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孕穗期不同渍害时长对小麦生理特性及产量的影响

丁富功 卢奕霏 贾宝森 朱旭东 熊泽浩 王超 侯泽豪 刘易科 朱展望 张迎新 王书平 方正武

丁富功,卢奕霏,贾宝森,等. 孕穗期不同渍害时长对小麦生理特性及产量的影响 [J]. 福建农业学报,2021,X(X):1−9
引用本文: 丁富功,卢奕霏,贾宝森,等. 孕穗期不同渍害时长对小麦生理特性及产量的影响 [J]. 福建农业学报,2021,X(X):1−9
DING F G, LU Y F, JIA B S, et al. Effects of different duration of waterlogging on physiological characteristics and yield of wheat at booting stage [J]. Fujian Journal of Agricultural Sciences,2021,X(X):1−9
Citation: DING F G, LU Y F, JIA B S, et al. Effects of different duration of waterlogging on physiological characteristics and yield of wheat at booting stage [J]. Fujian Journal of Agricultural Sciences,2021,X(X):1−9

孕穗期不同渍害时长对小麦生理特性及产量的影响

基金项目: 湖北省科学技术重大创新专项(2018ABA085);国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFD0100800)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    丁富功(1995−),男,硕士生,主要从事作物遗传育种研究。(E-mail:fugongding@126.com)

    通讯作者:

    方正武(1977−),男,博士,副教授,主要从事麦类种质资源创新与利用。(E-mail:fangzhengwu88@163.com)

  • 中图分类号: S

Effects of different duration of waterlogging on physiological characteristics and yield of wheat at booting stage

  • 摘要:   目的  小麦渍害是长江中下游小麦生产中的主要非生物胁迫因素,研究孕穗期不同渍害时长对小麦生理特性及产量的影响,为小麦孕穗期的耐渍性机理研究和生产提供理论依据。  方法  以小麦品种扬麦16和中麦895为供试材料,采用盆栽控水方法,研究孕穗期渍害时长对小麦生长及产量的影响。  结果  (1)孕穗期发生渍害,小麦叶片的叶绿素含量显著降低,渍害时长越久,叶片SPAD值下降程度越大;受害越重的叶片SPAD值下降幅度越大,倒二叶较同期的旗叶受害严重。(2)小麦的CAT、SOD和POD等抗氧化物酶的酶活性在渍害期间呈现“ ”型变化趋势,活性氧(ROS)含量在渍害前期有降低或缓慢增加现象,而在渍害后期呈急剧升高趋势。(3)孕穗期短期内渍害有效穗数、穗粒数和千粒重等产量要素有小幅度增加现象,这可能是小麦的应激反应所致。(4)孕穗期渍害对小麦株高无显著影响,长期渍害导致小麦产量显著下降,有效穗数、穗粒数和千粒重的降低是引起小麦减产的主要因子;在渍害15 d后,中麦895和扬麦16的单株产量分别较CK降低了51.47%和43.99%。  结论  孕穗期渍害显著降低了小麦叶片叶绿素含量,破坏了植株体内活性氧代谢和抗氧化酶系统之间的平衡,过量积累的活性氧致使细胞脂膜过氧化,导致细胞结构和功能受损,进而影响植株光合作用和营养物质的传输和积累,使小麦生物量大幅降低,从而导致籽粒灌浆不足,造成空粒、瘪粒和无效穗数显著增多,最终造成小麦减产。此外,在整个渍害胁迫过程中,供试的2个小麦品种的耐渍性强弱表现为:扬麦16>中麦895。
  • 图  1  孕穗期渍害胁迫小麦叶片SPAD值的变化

    注:图1-A为旗叶,图1-B为倒二叶。

    Figure  1.  Changes of SPAD value in waterlogged wheat leaves at booting stage

    Note: Figure 1-A. Flag Leaf, Figure 1-B. The top second leaf.

    图  2  孕穗期渍害胁迫小麦超氧阴离子自由基(O2−·)产生速率和过氧化氢(H2O2)含量的变化

    注:图2-A为超氧阴离子自由基,图2-B为过氧化氢含量。

    Figure  2.  The changes of superoxide anion radical(O2·)production rate and hydrogen peroxide(H2O2)content in wheat damaged by booting

    Note: Figure 2-A. The superoxide anion radical, Figure 2-B. The hydrogen peroxide content.

    图  3  孕穗期渍害胁迫对小麦旗叶抗氧化酶活性的变化

    注:图3-A为过氧化氢酶,图3-B为超氧化物歧化酶,图3-C为过氧化物酶。

    Figure  3.  Changes of antioxidant enzyme activity in flag leaf of wheat by waterlogging at booting stage

    Note: Figure 3-A. Catalase, Figure 3-B. Superoxide dismutase, Figure 3-C. Peroxidase.

    图  4  孕穗期渍害胁迫对小麦旗叶MDA含量的变化

    注:图4为丙二醛。

    Figure  4.  Changes of MDA content in flag leaf of wheat by waterlogging at booting stage

    Note: Figure 4. Malondialdehyde.

    表  1  孕穗期渍害胁迫对小麦产量构成因子的影响

    Table  1.   Effects of booting on wheat yield components

    品种
    Variety
    处理
    Treatment
    株高
    Plant heigh/cm
    穗长
    Ear length/cm
    有效穗
    Effective panicle/
    (个.株−1
    穗粒数
    Grain number per panicle/
    (粒.穗−1
    千粒重
    1000-grain
    weight/g
    产量
    Yield/
    (g.株−1
    产量降幅
    Yield loss/%
    中麦895CK73.2±0.1 a7.09±1.0 a5.5±0.6 a30.2±1.1 a46.9±0.4 a7.790±0.8 a——
    WL173.2±0.4 a7.09±1.3 a5.5±0.3 a30.2±0.4 a47.1±1.1 b7.823±0.2 b0.4
    WL373.2±0.2 a7.09±1.2 a5.6±0.4 b30.3±0.7 b47.2±0.6 c8.009±0.5 c2.81
    WL573.2±0.4 a7.06±1.3 b5.5±0.2 a29.8±1.2 c46.7±0.1 d7.654±0.4 d(1.75)
    WL773.1±1.1 a6.98±0.3 c5.3±0.7 c29.4±0.4 d44.3±1.3 e6.903±0.8 e(11.39)
    WL973±0.8 a6.84±0.5 d5.0±0.5 d29.0±0.6 e41.4±0.8 f6.003±1.1 f(22.94)
    WL1172.8±0.7 a6.81±0.4 e4.7±0.3 e28.3±1.0 f39.2±1.1 g5.214±0.7 g(33.07)
    WL1372.7±0.9 a6.74±0.7 f4.4±0.6 f27.6±0.7 g37.6±1.2 h4.566±0.5 h(41.39)
    WL1572.5±0.6 a6.66±1.2 g4.0±0.7 g26.4±1.0 h35.8±0.8 i3.780±0.8 i(51.47)
    扬麦16CK85.4±0.7 a8.94±1.1 a4.7±0.5 a39.2±0.9 a39.1±0.8 a7.204±0.7 a——
    WL185.4±1.2 a8.95±0.8 a4.7±0.8 a39.1±0.2 b39.2±0.2 b7.204±1.2 a2.13
    WL385.4±0.9 a8.97±1.0 b4.8±0.3 b39.2±0.1 a39.2±0.1 b7.530±0.5 b3.46
    WL585.2±1.1 a8.94±0.6 a4.6±0.5 c38.9±0.3 c38.7±0.4 c6.925±0.1 c(3.87)
    WL785.2±0.3 a8.89±0.5 c4.6±0.9 c38.2±0.2 d36.9±0.3 d6.484±0.1 d(9.99)
    WL985.1±0.4 ab8.83±0.9 d4.5±0.2 d37.6±0.7 e35.6±0.1 e6.024±1.0 e(16.38)
    WL1184.8±0.6 ab8.75±0.4 e4.2±0. e36.8±0.2 f34.4±0.5 f5.317±0.8 f(26.19)
    WL1384.5±0.2 bc8.59±0.3 f3.9±0.9 f35.9±0.5 g33.2±0.8 g4.648±0.7 g(35.47)
    WL1584.2±0.5 c8.52±1.1 g3.6±0.7 g35.1±0.8 h32.5±1.1 h4.107±1.3 h(43.99)
    注:CK为CK,WL1~15为渍害胁迫1~15 d,表中的值为平均值±标准误差,同列处理组内的数值后的不同小写字母表示差异显著(P<0.05,Duncan's检测)。
    Note: CK the control group, WL1~15. the stress of waterlogging for 1~15 d, the values in the table are mean ± standard error, and different lowercase letters after processing the values in the group in the same column indicate significant differences(P<0.05, Duncan's test).
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2020-01-17
  • 修回日期:  2020-08-21
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-05-17

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