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土壤真菌群落特征对长期玉米秸秆还田方式的响应

张巩亮 徐莹莹 王宇先 杨慧莹 高盼 王晨 赵蕾

张巩亮,徐莹莹,王宇先,等. 土壤真菌群落特征对长期玉米秸秆还田方式的响应 [J]. 福建农业学报,2023,38(12):1466−1477 doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.12.011
引用本文: 张巩亮,徐莹莹,王宇先,等. 土壤真菌群落特征对长期玉米秸秆还田方式的响应 [J]. 福建农业学报,2023,38(12):1466−1477 doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.12.011
ZHANG G L, XU Y Y, WANG Y X, et al. Fungal Community in Soil Affected by Long-term Returning Maize Stover to Field [J]. Fujian Journal of Agricultural Sciences,2023,38(12):1466−1477 doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.12.011
Citation: ZHANG G L, XU Y Y, WANG Y X, et al. Fungal Community in Soil Affected by Long-term Returning Maize Stover to Field [J]. Fujian Journal of Agricultural Sciences,2023,38(12):1466−1477 doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.12.011

土壤真菌群落特征对长期玉米秸秆还田方式的响应

doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.12.011
基金项目: 黑龙江省省属科研院所科研业务费项目(CZKYF2022-1-C043);齐齐哈尔市科技计划创新激励项目(CNYGG2022040);黑龙江省科技计划省院科技合作项目(YS20B09);国家农业环境齐齐哈尔观测实验站(NAES058AE10)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    张巩亮(1998 — ),男,硕士,研究实习员,主要从事作物栽培与土壤肥料研究,E-mail:zhangl77haer@163.com

    通讯作者:

    徐莹莹(1989 — ),女,硕士,助理研究员,主要从事农业微生物研究,E-mail:ghdetongzhuo@163.com

  • 中图分类号: S154

Fungal Community in Soil Affected by Long-term Returning Maize Stover to Field

  • 摘要:   目的  探明玉米秸秆不同还田方式对黑龙江西部玉米产区土壤养分以及土壤真菌群落结构的影响。  方法  于2015—2021年,以玉米品种嫩单19为试验材料,采用随机区组试验设计,以秸秆不还田(CK)为对照,设置秸秆覆盖还田(CSR)、秸秆碎混还田(MSR)、秸秆深翻还田(PSR)、秸秆轮替还田(RSR)等4种秸秆还田方式处理。通过Illumina Miseq测序技术分析比较了不同秸秆还田方式及不同生育期对土壤环境中真菌群落结构及功能变化的环境驱动因子的影响。  结果  生长时期和秸秆还田方式及其互作效应对真菌群落多样性、结构组成及土壤化学性状均有显著或极显著影响。拔节期土壤真菌中占比较大的优势菌门主要为担子菌门(Basidiomycota)、子囊菌门(Ascomycota)和被孢霉门(Mortierellomycota),优势菌属为Tausonia、鬼伞属(Coprinellus)和Solicoccozyma;而吐丝期的优势菌门为子囊菌门(Ascomycota)、担子菌门(Basidiomycota)和被孢霉门(Mortierellomycota),优势菌属为Tausonia、被孢霉属(Mortierella)和镰刀菌属(Fusarium)。RDA分析结果表明,硝态氮、速效磷和铵态氮是影响属分类水平下真菌群落结构组成的主要环境驱动因子。秸秆轮替还田、秸秆碎混还田和秸秆深翻还田处理产量分别较秸秆不还田处理提高3.92%、3.76%和1.97%。  结论  秸秆轮替还田较不还田处理有效增产3.92%,同时秸秆轮替还田在拔节期提高了土壤真菌丰富度指数,ASV数量也高于其他处理。同时,该还田方式下的青霉菌属(Penicillium)可以提高秸秆复合菌系对木质纤维素的降解,促进秸秆腐熟,秸秆轮替还田可在东北玉米产区推广应用。
  • 图  1  拔节期(A)和吐丝期(B)土壤真菌ASV分布韦恩图

    A、B、C、D、E、F、G、H、I、J分别代表拔节期CSR、拔节期MSR、拔节期PSR、拔节期RSR、拔节期CK、吐丝期CSR、吐丝期MSR、吐丝期PSR、吐丝期RSR、吐丝期CK。下同。

    Figure  1.  Venn diagram of soil fungal ASV distribution at maize jointing stage (A) and silking stage (B)

    A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, and J represent jointing CSR, jointing MSR, jointing PSR, jointing RSR, jointing CK, silking CSR, silking MSR, silking PSR, silking RSR, and silking CK, respectively. Same for below.

    图  2  拔节期门分类水平下(A)和属分类水平下(B)真菌群落的相对丰度及组成

    Figure  2.  Relative abundance and composition of fungal community at phylum level (A) and genus level (B) during maize joining stage

    图  3  吐丝期门分类水平下(A)和属分类水平下(B)真菌群落的相对丰度及组成

    Figure  3.  Relative abundance and composition of fungal community at phylum level (A) and genus level (B) during maize silking stage

    图  4  拔节期(A)和吐丝期(B)ASV水平下真菌群落组成的PCOA分析

    Figure  4.  PCOA analysis on fungal community at ASV level at maize jointing stage (A) and silking stage (B)

    图  5  拔节期(A)和吐丝期(B)土壤真菌LDA值分析

    Figure  5.  Analysis on LDA of soil fungi at maize jointing stage (A) and silking stage (B)

    图  6  土壤环境因子与真菌群落的关联热图

    Figure  6.  Heat map on relationship between environmental factors and fungal community in soil

    图  7  土壤环境因子与真菌群落的RDA分析

    OC,有机碳;TN,全氮;AN,氨态氮;NN,硝态氮;AP,速效磷;AK,速效钾。

    Figure  7.  RDA analysis on environmental factors and fungal community in soil

    OC: Organic carbon; TN: total nitrogen; AN: ammonia nitrogen; NN: nitrate nitrogen; AP: available phosphorus; AK: available kalium.

    图  8  土壤真菌群落功能预测结果

    Figure  8.  Predicted functions of fungi in soil

    图  9  秸秆不同还田方式对玉米产量的影响

    Figure  9.  Effect of different straw-returning methods on maize yield

    表  1  秸秆还田具体方式

    Table  1.   Stover-returning methods

    秸秆还田方式
    Straw return method
    具体操作
    Specific operation
    秸秆覆盖还田(CSR)玉米机械化收获抛撒秸秆→翌年春季播种前秸秆二次粉碎→免耕播种。
    秸秆碎混还田(MSR)玉米机械化收获抛撒秸秆→深松、重耙秸秆碎混还田→翌年春季免耕播种。
    秸秆深翻还田(PSR)玉米机械化收获抛撒秸秆→秸秆二次粉碎→液压翻转犁翻埋秸秆还田、重耙→翌年春年免耕播种。
    秸秆轮替还田(RSR)前两年覆盖秸秆还田,第三年秸秆碎混还田,作业方式同上,三年为一个轮替周期。
    秸秆不还田(CK)玉米机械化收获→秸秆移除→翌年春季播种前旋耕灭茬→免耕播种。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  土壤化学性质比较

    Table  2.   Chemical properties of soils

    时期
    Period
    方式
    Method
    有机碳
    Organic Carbon/
    (g·kg−1
    全氮
    Total Nitrogen/
    (g·kg−1
    铵态氮
    Ammonium Nitrogen/
    (mg·kg−1
    硝态氮
    Nitrate Nitrogen/
    (mg·kg−1
    速效磷
    Available Phosphorus/
    (mg·kg−1
    速效钾
    Available Kalium/
    (mg·kg−1
    拔节期
    Elongation
    CSR19.59 a1.69 b2.12 b307.33 a96.87 b277.33 a
    MSR16.22 b1.57 c2.19 b310.82 a93.40 b248.33 b
    PSR14.12 c1.39 d1.23 c113.88 b44.88 c157.33 c
    RSR19.18 a1.91 a3.04 a313.17 a103.31 a262.00 ab
    CK12.95 c1.21 e1.16 c94.59 b44.18 c150.00 c
    吐丝期
    Spinning
    CSR17.11 a1.57 b3.45 ab75.92 a51.48 d202.08 a
    MSR15.80 b1.57 b2.99 b68.03 b56.01 c166.42 b
    PSR15.64 b1.54 b2.49 b51.03 c58.67 b173.75 ab
    RSR16.89 a1.69 a4.51 a80.54 a65.27 a174.58 ab
    CK14.64 c1.51 b0.92 c37.55 d40.06 e155.25 b
    F
    F value
    FPeriod2.421.1925.27**2375.94**1034.04**103.97**
    FMethod47.76**69.82**25.13**295.10**522.42**55.90**
    FPeriod*Method12.25**26.92**2.87161.32**276.38**27.13**
    *和**分别表示在5 %和1 %水平显著性。下同。
    '*' and '**' indicate significance at 5% and 1% level, respectively. Same for below.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  真菌群落丰富度、多样性和均匀度的比较

    Table  3.   Abundance, diversity, and uniformity of fungal communities

    时期
    Period
    方式
    Method
    丰富度指数
    Richness index
    多样性指数
    Diversity index
    均匀度指数
    Uniformity index
    Observed species指数
    Observed species index
    Chao指数
    Chao index
    Shannon指数
    Shannon index
    Simpson指数
    Simpson index
    Pielou指数
    Pielou index
    拔节期
    Elongation
    CSR373.10 b380.94 b3.92 c0.74 b0.46 bc
    MSR254.33 c259.49 c3.38 c0.72 b0.42 c
    PSR243.40 c247.08 c3.73 c0.77 b0.47 bc
    RSR470.73 a478.36 a4.70 b0.80 ab0.53 b
    CK458.87 a464.18 ab5.53 a0.92 a0.62 a
    吐丝期
    Spinning
    CSR475.47 a478.96 a6.42 a0.98 a0.72 a
    MSR331.57 b334.48 b4.58 b0.85 b0.55 b
    PSR226.97 c229.21 c3.26 c0.71 c0.42 c
    RSR445.17 a448.55 a6.08 a0.96 a0.69 a
    CK511.97 a515.68 a6.74 a0.98 a0.75 a
    F
    F value
    FPeriod5.54*4.46*61.02**26.90**71.06**
    FMethod36.30**34.56**41.51**13.21**34.59**
    FPeriod*Method2.462.2910.09**5.97**12.53**
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  土壤真菌各等级ASV物种统计结果

    Table  4.   Statistical ASV on fungal species in soil

    时期 Period方式 Method编号 Number门 Phylum纲 Class目 Order科 Family属 Genus种 Species
    拔节期
    Elongation
    CSRA4.011.730.358.091.796.3
    MSRB3.710.326.050.081.783.0
    PSRC4.311.728.048.074.072.0
    RSRD6.016.334.365.7116.7122.3
    CKE4.314.735.063.0103.7109.7
    吐丝期
    Spinning
    CSRF6.014.734.766.3116.7114.7
    MSRG6.013.333.056.394.088.7
    PSRH4.012.030.751.077.771.0
    RSRI7.016.334.060.0101.7106.7
    CKJ7.020.042.375.7122.3133.0
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2023-04-10
  • 修回日期:  2023-08-02
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-12-21
  • 刊出日期:  2023-12-28

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