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化肥减量条件下秸秆还田配施腐植酸对玉米碳氮代谢的影响

郭伟 但武侠 马传芳 孙海燕

郭伟,但武侠,马传芳,等. 化肥减量条件下秸秆还田配施腐植酸对玉米碳氮代谢的影响 [J]. 福建农业学报,2023,38(4):475−484 doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.04.012
引用本文: 郭伟,但武侠,马传芳,等. 化肥减量条件下秸秆还田配施腐植酸对玉米碳氮代谢的影响 [J]. 福建农业学报,2023,38(4):475−484 doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.04.012
GUO W, DAN W X, MA C F, et al. Effects of Chemical Fertilizer Reduction with Humic Acid Addition on Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolism of Zea mays under Straw-returning Cultivation [J]. Fujian Journal of Agricultural Sciences,2023,38(4):475−484 doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.04.012
Citation: GUO W, DAN W X, MA C F, et al. Effects of Chemical Fertilizer Reduction with Humic Acid Addition on Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolism of Zea mays under Straw-returning Cultivation [J]. Fujian Journal of Agricultural Sciences,2023,38(4):475−484 doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.04.012

化肥减量条件下秸秆还田配施腐植酸对玉米碳氮代谢的影响

doi: 10.19303/j.issn.1008-0384.2023.04.012
基金项目: 黑龙江省应用技术研究与开发计划项目(GA20B102-02);黑龙江八一农垦大学基础培育课题(ZRCPY202101)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    郭伟(1977−),男,教授,博士生导师,主要从事作物生理生态研究(E-mail:agrigw@163.com

  • 中图分类号: S513

Effects of Chemical Fertilizer Reduction with Humic Acid Addition on Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolism of Zea mays under Straw-returning Cultivation

  • 摘要:   目的  秸秆直接全量还田技术在东北黑土区农业生产中被广泛应用,但关于还田秸秆腐解过程对当季作物的直接影响及其配套技术研究较少。对秸秆与腐植酸互作效应的研究可为完善东北黑土区秸秆还田技术提供参考。  方法  在减少15%化肥常规施用量的基础上,以化肥常量施肥(CF)为对照,设置化肥减量15%增施腐植酸(HA)、化肥减量15%增施秸秆(SR)、化肥减量15%增施腐植酸和秸秆(SRH)处理,研究玉米秸秆还田配施腐植酸对当季玉米植株碳氮代谢的影响,以期明确秸秆还田及腐植酸对化肥减量情况下玉米生长的生理效应。  结果  秸秆还田提高了玉米叶片磷酸烯醇式丙酮酸羧化酶(PEPC)活性,腐植酸提高了玉米叶片1,5-二磷酸核酮糖羧化酶(Rubisco)和PEPC活性,秸秆还田配施腐植酸在PEPC活性上具有互作效应。虽然秸秆还田降低了蔗糖磷酸合成酶(SPS)活性,但腐植酸提高了SPS活性,两者均提高了蔗糖合成酶活性,且两者互作下同步提高了酸性转化酶(AI)和中性转化酶(NI)活性,促进了还原糖(RS)合成,进而提高了总可溶性糖(TSS)含量,加强了淀粉合成。秸秆还田对玉米植株氮代谢无直接影响,腐植酸对氮代谢关键酶活性具有正效应。  结论  秸秆还田配施腐植酸提高了化肥减量条件下玉米叶片光合效率和光合产物的贮存能力,植株氮代谢水平不低于常规施肥对照。
  • 图  1  化肥减量时秸秆还田配施腐植酸对碳氮比的影响

    不同小写字母表示同一时期不同处理之间差异显著(P<0.05)。图2同。

    Figure  1.  Effects of straw-returning with HA addition on carbon/nitrogen ratio of plants under chemical fertilizer reduction

    Data with different letters indicate significant differences between treatments in same period (P<0.05). Same for Fig.2.

    图  2  化肥减量时秸秆还田配施腐植酸对植株干重的影响

    Figure  2.  Effects of straw-returning with HA addition on dry mass of plant under chemical fertilizer reduction

    表  1  试验处理的各物料用量及代号

    Table  1.   Amounts of materials applied and treatment codes

    试验处理
    Experimental
    treatments
    化肥
    Chemical fertilizer/(kg·hm−2)
    秸秆
    Straw/
    (kg·hm−2)
    腐植酸
    Humic acid/
    (kg·hm−2)
    尿素
    Urea
    磷酸二铵
    Diammonium
    phosphate
    硫酸钾
    Potassium
    sulphate
    CF 375 225 15000
    HA32019000600
    SR320190037500
    SRH32019003750600
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  化肥减量时秸秆还田配施腐植酸对玉米碳代谢的影响

    Table  2.   Effect of straw-returning cultivation with HA addition on carbon metabolism of corn under chemical fertilizer reduction

    指标
    Indexes
    处理
    Treatments
    2019年2020年
    拔节期
    JS
    抽雄期
    TS
    拔节期
    JS
    抽雄期
    TS
    1,5二磷酸核酮糖羧化酶活性
    Rubisco activity/( U·g−1)
    CF 182.478±19.869 c 168.553±11.127 b 107.010±7.919 c 82.530±9.306 c
    HA 333.133±31.305 a 246.361±23.953 a 160.524±13.897 a 214.903±19.634 a
    SR 187.207±12.636 c 178.220±20.805 b 97.900±10.600 c 146.339±15.249 b
    SRH 295.363±28.578 b 250.515±21.954 a 128.584±10.431 b 209.210±21.617 a
    磷酸烯醇式丙酮酸羧化酶活性
    PEPC activity/( U·g−1)
    CF 179.762±23.198 c 186.567±21.519 d 124.569±10.988 c 238.509±8.438 c
    HA 231.241±30.347 b 263.827±19.643 c 150.838±14.381 c 285.123±36.233 b
    SR 267.463±26.890 b 321.121±42.789 b 175.993±16.885 b 315.329±31.267 b
    SRH 340.904±30.898 a 360.571±18.653 a 202.089±20.991 a 432.205±43.422 a
    蔗糖磷酸合成酶活性
    SPS activity/( U·g−1)
    CF 492.938±48.295 c 479.661±60.974 b 458.702±70.678 b 492.480±75.921 a
    HA 996.230±94.786 a 633.180±78.493 a 734.351±48.045 a 577.201±24.592 a
    SR 529.382±53.381 bc 444.858±27.624 b 467.885±53.758 b 315.727±36.193 b
    SRH 622.420±76.004 b 550.510±57.402 ab 482.118±50.025 b 505.940±68.491 a
    蔗糖合成酶活性
    SS activity/( U·g−1)
    CF 0.558±0.046 c 0.435±0.017 b 0.384±0.043 c 0.333±0.041 c
    HA 0.643±0.054 bc 0.439±0.065 b 0.481±0.044 b 0.404±0.055 b
    SR 0.692±0.072 b 0.493±0.036 b 0.481±0.044 b 0.462±0.023 ab
    SRH 0.951±0.086 a 0.718±0.105 a 0.577±0.063 a 0.532±0.013 a
    酸性转化酶活性
    AI activity/( U·g−1)
    CF 0.188±0.011 c 0.260±0.025 c 0.605±0.030 a 0.415±0.047 b
    HA 0.257±0.023 b 0.317±0.029 b 0.708±0.070 a 0.484±0.034 a
    SR 0.242±0.025 b 0.364±0.050 b 0.635±0.068 a 0.497±0.071 a
    SRH 0.310±0.038 a 0.426±0.049 a 0.680±0.058 a 0.539±0.059 a
    中性转化酶活性
    NI activity/( U·g−1)
    CF 0.119±0.016 b 0.201±0.011 c 0.394±0.036 b 0.383±0.039 b
    HA 0.146±0.016 a 0.231±0.028 c 0.484±0.037 a 0.433±0.056 ab
    SR 0.145±0.016 a 0.266±0.030 b 0.487±0.046 a 0.421±0.017 ab
    SRH 0.150±0.011 a 0.329±0.022 a 0.517±0.058 a 0.483±0.055 a
    还原糖含量
    RS content/(mg·g−1)
    CF 6.448±0.497 b 10.439±1.021 c 12.707±0.858 b 14.162±2.297 a
    HA 6.715±0.288 ab 12.571±1.730 b 12.707±1.184 b 15.307±1.125 a
    SR 6.795±0.345 ab 13.909±0.923 b 14.271±1.479 ab 14.716±1.295 a
    SRH 7.290±0.600 a 18.290±2.265 a 15.981±0.755 a 17.118±2.281 a
    可溶性糖含量
    SS content/(mg·g−1)
    CF 76.805±2.100 b 183.208±19.136 c 147.315±12.109 b 218.915±13.809 b
    HA 80.668±3.948 b 243.913±25.718 b 177.415±18.147 a 249.490±22.366 ab
    SR 89.401±5.496 a 302.668±18.060 a 169.865±14.699 a 202.365±25.940 b
    SRH 90.295±6.562 a 292.733±31.149 a 177.115±17.130 a 270.490±27.253 a
    淀粉含量
    Starch content/(mg·g−1)
    CF 4.706±0.289 d 5.351±0.503 d 2.002±0.212 c 4.594±0.405 d
    HA 5.890±0.595 c 7.170±0.650 c 4.316±0.339 b 5.449±0.409 c
    SR 11.014±1.217 a 11.692±0.560 a 6.707±0.643 a 8.996±0.773 a
    SRH 8.863±0.884 b 9.385±0.561 b 4.905±0.440 b 7.984±0.629 b
    不同字母表示同一时期不同处理间差异显著(P<0.05)。表4同。
    Data with different letters indicate significant differences between treatments in same period (P<0.05). Same for Table 4.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  化肥减量时秸秆还田配施腐植酸对玉米碳代谢影响的相关分析

    Table  3.   Correlation between straw-returning with HA addition and carbon metabolism of corn under chemical fertilizer reduction

    指标
    Indices
    1.5-二磷酸核酮
    糖羧化酶
    Rubisco
    磷酸烯醇式
    丙酮酸
    PEPC
    蔗糖磷酸
    合成酶
    SPS
    酸性转
    化酶
    AI
    中性转
    化酶
    NI
    蔗糖
    合成酶
    SS
    还原糖
    RS
    总可溶性

    SS
    淀粉
    Starch
    秸秆还田 SR −0.002 0.555** −0.379** 0.173 0.180 0.489** 0.277* 0.183 0.716**
    腐植酸 HA 0.618** 0.336** 0.569** 0.194 0.158 0.361** 0.201 0.161 −0.026
    1.5-二磷酸核酮糖羧化酶 Rubisco 1.000 0.445** 0.615** −0.495** −0.541** 0.596** −0.330** −0.126 0.324**
    磷酸烯醇式 丙酮酸羧化酶 PEPC 0.445** 1.000 −0.098 −0.178 −0.037 0.342** 0.287* 0.448** 0.668**
    蔗糖磷酸合成酶 SPS 0.615** −0.098 1.000 −0.164 −0.286* 0.302* −0.383** −0.320* −0.133
    酸性转化酶 AI −0.495** −0.178 −0.164 1.000 0.929** −0.302* 0.639** 0.289* −0.329**
    中性转化酶 NI −0.541** −0.037 −0.286* 0.929** 1.000 −0.431** 0.771** 0.462** −0.275*
    蔗糖合成酶 SS 0.596** 0.342** 0.302* −0.302* −0.431** 1.000 −0.357** −0.371** 0.457**
    还原糖 RS −0.330** 0.287* −0.383** 0.639** 0.771** −0.357** 1.000 0.804** 0.035
    总可溶性糖 SS −0.126 0.448** −0.320* 0.289* 0.462** −0.371** 0.804** 1.000 0.263*
    淀粉 Starch 0.324** 0.668** −0.133 −0.329** −0.275* 0.457** 0.035 0.263* 1.000
    *为P<0.05水平显著性相关,**为P<0.01水平显著性相关。表5同。
    * indicates significant difference at P<0.05; ** significant difference at P<0.01. Same for Table 5.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  化肥减量时秸秆还田配施腐植酸对玉米氮代谢的影响

    Table  4.   Effect of straw-returning cultivation with HA addition on nitrogen metabolism of corn under chemical fertilizer reduction

    指标
    Indices
    处理
    Treatments
    2019年 2020年
    拔节期
    JS
    抽雄期
    TS
    拔节期
    JS
    抽雄期
    TS
    硝酸还原酶活性 NR activity/(U·g−1) CF 10.733±0.298 c 15.112±0.604 ab 10.889±0.353 c 22.785±1.491 c
    HA 14.883±0.662 a 15.613±1.300 ab 12.833±0.999 b 25.806±1.561 b
    SR 12.158±0.572 b 14.286±0.961 b 13.381±1.200 b 23.354±1.760 c
    SRH 14.495±1.076 a 16.549±1.244 a 15.911±1.078 a 29.009±2.233 a
    亚硝酸还原酶活性 NiR activity/( U·g−1) CF 7.223±0.397 a 7.855±0.602 ab 5.304±0.427 b 5.617±0.425 ab
    HA 7.467±0.530 a 8.278±0.555 a 5.294±0.534 b 5.781±0.300 ab
    SR 6.066±0.489 b 7.178±0.608 bc 5.209±0.388 b 5.352±0.325 b
    SRH 7.291±0.338 a 8.278±0.647 a 5.937±0.415 a 6.148±0.204 a
    谷氨酰胺合成酶活性 GS activity/(U·g−1) CF 4.335±0.296 c 6.066±0.676 ab 5.063±0.343 a 5.223±0.439 ab
    HA 5.014±0.409 ab 6.946±0.674 a 4.974±0.131 a 5.449±0.405 ab
    SR 4.503±0.497 bc 5.353±0.626 bc 4.846±0.423 a 4.600±0.251 c
    SRH 5.153±0.404 a 6.762±0.785 a 5.342±0.454 a 5.665±0.290 a
    谷氨酸合成酶活性 GOGAT activity/(U·g−1) CF 201.226±12.436 a 168.848±14.888 b 169.267±9.328 a 223.634±15.222 b
    HA 209.045±16.757 a 179.706±12.784 b 177.401±16.887 a 226.755±18.983 b
    SR 157.349±13.598 b 160.202±9.295 b 176.813±13.815 a 180.598±14.901 c
    SRH 201.724±13.005 a 230.400±19.836 a 184.970±18.398 a 291.460±14.460 a
    谷氨酸脱氢酶活性 GDH activity/(U·g−1) CF 154.233±14.485 cd 282.472±25.283 b 122.881±10.086 b 194.298±14.478 c
    HA 189.421±17.192 ab 327.190±32.580 a 151.293±12.562 a 230.185±15.743 b
    SR 174.206±13.139 bc 256.136±19.632 b 138.068±7.485 a 197.765±13.886 c
    SRH 210.899±15.115 a 320.303±12.314 a 146.717±11.322 a 289.820±28.757 a
    可溶性蛋白质含量 SP content/(mg·g−1) CF 2.737±0.133 b 5.389±0.166 b 3.533±0.214 a 6.693±0.553 a
    HA 2.966±0.208 b 5.404±0.242 b 3.690±0.166 a 6.636±0.306 a
    SR 2.980±0.395 b 5.539±0.220 b 3.585±0.216 a 6.029±0.331 b
    SRH 3.490±0.250 a 6.082±0.503 a 3.654±0.201 a 7.020±0.319 a
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  化肥减量时秸秆还田配施腐植酸对玉米氮代谢影响的相关分析

    Table  5.   Correlation between straw-returning with HA and nitrogen metabolism of corn under chemical fertilizer reduction

    指标
    Indices
    硝酸还原酶
    NR
    亚硝酸还原酶
    NiR
    谷氨酰胺合成酶
    GS
    谷氨酸合成酶
    GOGAT
    谷氨酸脱氢酶
    GDH
    可溶性蛋白质
    SP
    秸秆还田 SR0.121−0.056−0.0650.0480.0780.055
    腐植酸 HA0.259*0.266*0.404**0.450**0.328**0.103
    硝酸还原酶 NR1.000−0.1720.1550.653**0.379**0.804**
    亚硝酸还原酶 NiR−0.1721.0000.467**0.0380.642**0.059
    谷氨酰胺合成酶 GS0.1550.467**1.0000.1600.709**0.446**
    谷氨酸合成酶 GOGAT0.653**0.0380.1601.0000.326**0.465**
    谷氨酸脱氢酶 GDH0.379**0.642**0.709**0.326**1.0000.637**
    可溶性蛋白质 SP0.804**0.0590.446**0.465**0.637**1.000
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-08-21
  • 修回日期:  2023-03-03
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-05-09
  • 刊出日期:  2023-04-28

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