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热带秸秆覆盖对土壤质量及玉米产量和品质的影响

焦静 黄小红 杜嵇华 李普旺 杨子明 李尊香 刘信鹏 宋书会 何祖宇

焦静,黄小红,杜嵇华,等. 热带秸秆覆盖对土壤质量及玉米产量和品质的影响 [J]. 福建农业学报,2024,39(3):1−7
引用本文: 焦静,黄小红,杜嵇华,等. 热带秸秆覆盖对土壤质量及玉米产量和品质的影响 [J]. 福建农业学报,2024,39(3):1−7
JIAO J, HUANG X H, DU J H, et al. Effects of Straw Mulching on Soil Quality, Corn Yield and Quality [J]. Fujian Journal of Agricultural Sciences,2024,39(3):1−7
Citation: JIAO J, HUANG X H, DU J H, et al. Effects of Straw Mulching on Soil Quality, Corn Yield and Quality [J]. Fujian Journal of Agricultural Sciences,2024,39(3):1−7

热带秸秆覆盖对土壤质量及玉米产量和品质的影响

基金项目: 海南省自然科学基金项目(520MS093);中国热带农业科学院基本科研业务费专项资金(1630062021011)。
详细信息
    作者简介:

    焦静(1983 —),女,硕士,研究员,主要从事农业废弃物资源化利用研究,E-mail:eddweiss@163.com

    通讯作者:

    李普旺(1974 —),男,博士,研究员,主要从事农业新材料研究,E-mail:puwangli@163.com

  • 中图分类号: S626.2

Effects of Straw Mulching on Soil Quality, Corn Yield and Quality

  • 摘要:   目的  探究甘蔗叶、菠萝茎叶等热带大宗秸秆作为农业覆盖材料对土壤质量及玉米生长的影响,为热带秸秆废弃物资源化利用提供参考依据。  方法  以玉米为种植对象,采用田间小区对比试验,设置甘蔗叶覆盖(SLM)、腐熟甘蔗叶覆盖(RSLM)、菠萝茎叶覆盖(PLM)和富贵竹茎叶覆盖(FLM)4个处理,以塑料地膜覆盖(CK1)和无覆盖(CK2)为对照,研究不同秸秆覆盖对土壤pH、有机质、全氮、有效磷和速效钾的影响,以及对玉米产量和品质的影响。  结果  热带秸秆覆盖,与无覆盖相比,可以有效提升土壤pH、有机质、全氮、有效磷和速效钾含量,对提升土壤质量具有积极作用。富贵竹茎叶覆盖效果最显著,与塑料地膜覆盖相比,土壤pH提高9.01%,有机质提高6.42%,全氮提高17.59%,速效钾提高477.79%,有效磷含量低于塑料地膜覆盖,但差异不显著;与无覆盖相比,土壤pH提高22.22%,有机质提高21.63%,全氮提高24.51%,有效磷提高2.74%,速效钾提高389.38%。腐熟甘蔗叶和富贵竹茎叶覆盖可以显著提升玉米产量,其他秸秆覆盖对玉米产量和品质的影响均不显著。  结论  热带秸秆覆盖可以提升土壤质量、促进玉米增产,富贵竹茎叶覆盖在改良土壤方面的效果显著,腐熟甘蔗叶覆盖对于玉米增产有较好的促进作用。
  • 图  1  不同秸秆覆盖下土壤pH值变化

    图中均为2021~2022年指标平均值,图柱上不同小写字母表示组间差异显著(P<0.05)。图2~6同。

    Figure  1.  Change on soil pH by straw mulching

    Different lowercase letters indicated significant difference between different groups(P<0.05). The same was applied in Fig.2 to Fig.6.

    图  2  不同秸秆覆盖下土壤有机质含量变化

    Figure  2.  Change on soil organic matters by straw mulching

    图  3  不同秸秆覆盖下土壤全氮含量变化

    Figure  3.  Change on soil total N by straw mulching

    图  4  不同秸秆覆盖下土壤有效磷含量变化

    Figure  4.  Change on soil available P by straw mulching

    图  5  不同秸秆覆盖下土壤速效钾含量变化

    Figure  5.  Change on soil quick-acting K by straw mulching

    图  6  不同秸秆覆盖下玉米产量

    Figure  6.  Corn yield on plots under various straw mulching

    表  1  秸秆覆盖材料基础养分

    Table  1.   Nutritional compositions of mulching materials

    覆盖材料
    Covering material
    含水率
    Moisture Content/%
    全氮
    Total nitrogen/(g·kg−1)
    全磷
    Total phosphorus/(g·kg−1)
    全钾
    Total potassium/(g·kg−1)
    甘蔗叶(SLM) 43.24 17.42 1.88 9.54
    腐熟甘蔗叶(RSLM) 26.17 26.91 2.02 8.62
    菠萝茎叶(PLM) 63.18 26.46 1.05 9.83
    富贵竹茎叶(FLM) 72.91 33.25 1.23 16.53
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同秸秆覆盖对玉米品质的影响

    Table  2.   Effect of straw mulching on quality of corn

    处理
    Treatment
    蛋白质
    Protein/(g·hg−1)
    总糖
    Total sugar/%
    淀粉
    Starch/(g·hg−1)
    粗纤维
    Coarse fibre/%

    Calcium/(mg·kg−1)

    Zinc/(mg·kg−1)
    SLM 2.56±0.33a 1.95±0.49c 5.54±1.46a 0.80±0.14b 45.05±6.29a 4.55±0.47ab
    RSLM 2.86±0.11a 4.30±0.14ab 6.20±0.65a 0.90±0.14ab 15.75±0.35b 3.31±0.19b
    PLM 3.18±0.06a 2.80±0.14bc 6.30±0.40a 1.15±0.07a 13.90±0.28b 5.51±0.13a
    FLM 2.53±0.13a 3.25±0.35abc 5.06±1.44a 1.00±0.14ab 22.40±4.24b 3.93±1.60ab
    CK1 2.99±0.53a 4.85±1.63a 5.67±1.35a 1.00±0.00ab 21.95±13.22b 3.89±0.11ab
    CK2 2.82±0.15a 3.80±0.71abc 5.56±1.36a 0.70±0.14b 19.10±2.26b 4.89±0.35ab
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2023-09-04
  • 录用日期:  2024-02-27
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